In the United States, a patient who wants an organ transplant from a cadaverous donor must become part of an elaborate nationwide organ distribution system. This system, known collectively as the Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network (OPTN), is operated by the United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS), an independent nonprofit organization working under contract with the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. *Organ transplantation is the moving of an organ from one body to another or from a donor site to another location on the patient's own body, for the purpose of replacing the recipient's damaged or absent organ.
1.)autograft - Transplant of tissue to the same person. Sometimes this is done with surplus tissue, or tissue that can regenerate, or tissues more desperately needed elsewhere (examples include skin grafts, vein extraction for CABG, etc.) Sometimes an autograft is done to remove the tissue and then treat it or the person, before returning it (examples include stem cell autograft and storing blood in advance of surgery). In a rotationplasty a distal joint is used to replace a more proximal one, typically a foot and ankle joint is used to replace a knee joint. The patient's foot is severed and reversed, the knee removed, and the tibia joined with the femur. Skin grafting: transplantation of skin. The transplanted tissue is called a skin graft. Skin grafting is often used to treat:
* Extensive wounding or trauma
* Areas of extensive skin loss due to infection such as necrotizing fasciitis or purpura fulminans * Specific surgeries that may require skin grafts for healing to occur - most commonly removal of skin cancers
2.) An allograft is a transplant of an organ or tissue between two genetically non-identical members of the same species. Most human tissue and organ transplants are allografts. Due to the genetic difference between the organ and the recipient, the recipient's immune system will identify...
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