Operational Success

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1.Introduction
Complexity and the lengthening of chains of interdependent agencies make coordination necessary, while complex problems demand interoperable delivery systems to achieve goals or execute policies that are too big for one organization to handle. (Alexander, 1993, p. 18) The 2010 Olympic Winter Games was Canada’s largest national security undertaking in recent history. It involved a variety of traditional security and non-traditional components ranging from police officers to parliamentary ministers. The complex nature of the security challenges required the Government of Canada (GoC) to make use of an approach that was (a) previously untested and (b) was otherwise unfamiliar. The purpose of this paper is to analyze how a Whole of Government Approach (WGA) to security operations was implemented by the GoC for the 2010 Olympic Winter Games (Olympics). This paper will: 1.Define the WGA and analyze why it is needed in security operations 2.Examine whether the WGA was a foreign concept for the GoC 3.Review the conceptual framework of other countries that the GoC looked to when it was developing its strategic framework 4.Review the key policies, legislations, Memoranda of Understandings (MOUs), and international agreements created to allow a WGA, and 5.Determine whether the WGA was successful at the Olympics

Although a WGA involves all three levels of security operations (strategic, operational, and tactical), this paper will only focus on the strategic level. 2.Time for Change
In response to the terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001 (9/11), the GoC conducted a sweeping review of Canada’s national security apparatus. This review was entitled Securing An Open Society: Canada’s National Security Policy and it resulted in the restructuring of the government through the first Canadian National Security Policy. The review recognized that “the lack of integration in [the existing system was] a key gap” and that “the evolving nature of threats to Canadians requires a fully integrated government approach that ensures issues and information do not fall between the different parts of our security system.” (Government of Canada: Privy Council, 2004) Securing an Open Society identified eight central threats to Canadian security and public safety. Furthermore, these threats exceeded the expertise of any individual federal department or agency. In addtion to identifying the threats, the policy recognized that “major emergencies require extremely close co-operation between and within the federal government, provinces and territories, communities, first line responders and the private sector.” (Government of Canada: Privy Council, 2004, p. 25) Where the federal government should be providing leadership, the policy concluded that the system currently “suffers from the absence of both an effective federal-provincial-territorial governance regime, and from the absence of commonly agreed standards.” (Government of Canada: Privy Council, 2004, p. 25) To address these concerns, the GoC began its pursuit of bringing those responsible for national security together and helping them function as one entity; it looked to a WGA. Although the application of the term “Whole of Government Approach” has a variety of names, definitions, and meanings depending on which discipline uses it, WGA is a philosophy that calls for the bringing together of previously separate agencies into closer collaboration to achieve policy objectives (Hunt, 2005, p. 3). According to Henry, as a functional model, WGA allows for the transformation of formerly independent departments and agencies into responsive, adaptive, and interoperable organizations capable of providing an integrated response to events that cross departmental boundaries and the method of implementation for a WGA can be formal, informal, and/or a combination of both (Henry, 2006). Gizewski and Rostek, Rostek, and Michael identified that the need for a WGA comes from a growing...
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