April 8, 2013
Dr. Pamela Allen
Phobias and Addictions
Phobias and addictions tint the society greatly. According to Kowalski and Westen, (2011) “Phobias are an irrational fear of a specific object or situation” (Kowalski & Westen, 2011, p. 167). The National Institute of Drug Abuse indicates that the abuse of illicit drugs, tobacco, and alcohol affect the financial aspect of the nation greatly. Because of crime, lost work production and health care, the nation spends 600 million dollars annually (NIDA, 2012). According to the American Society of Addiction, (2013) “Addiction is characterized by inability to consistently abstain, impairment in behavior control, diminished recognition of significant problems with one’s behavior, and a dysfunctional emotional response” (ASAM, 2013, p. 1). Classical and operant conditioning are in relation to common phobias and present addictions Classical Conditioning vs. Operant Conditioning
Classical conditioning and operant conditioning are learning styles associated with human behavior. According to Kowalski and Westen, (2011) “Classical conditioning is a procedure by which a previously neutral stimulus comes to elicit a response after it is paired with a stimulus that automatically elicits that response” (Kowalski & Westen, 2011, p. 164). Ivan Pavlov, a Russian physiologist studied the digestive system of a canine, when he came across the discovery of classical conditioning (Kowalski & Westen, 2011). In this learning experiment, he noticed that the canine salivated at the sign of food (Kowalski & Westen, 2011). The canine engaged in salivating when the food was present by a ringing of a bell (Kowalski & Westen, 2011). This experiment led to the canine salivating at the ringing of the bell even if there were no foods present (Kowalski & Westen, 2011). Psychologists refer to this as classical conditioning (Kowalski & Westen, 2011, p. 164)....