Certified that this is a bonafide record done in B.tech(food technology) by S.CHITRA SAI, BF-09-011 in course no: SEMI-300, Titled “SEMINAR ” during first semester of 2011-12.
Course in charge. Date:
Conversion of Heavy Residues
Treatment of Refinery Gas streams
Oil refining is a key activity in the CPI.
Over 600 refineries worldwide have a total annual capacity of more than 3500 x 106 tonnes. Goal of oil refining is twofold:
i. production of fuels for transportation, power generation and heating; and ii. production of raw materials for the CPI.
Oil refineries are complex plants but are relatively mature and highly integrated.
Refining operations can be separated into five basic areas: 1. FRACTIONATION 2. CONVERSION PROCESS 3. TREATMENT PROCESS 4. FORMULATION 5. BLENDING
It is also called distillation. It is the separation of crude oil in atmospheric and vacuum distillation towers into groups of hydrocarbon compounds of differing boiling-point ranges called "fractions" or "cuts." It is the primary step in the oil refinery process. Then the refinery process undergo further process.
It change the size and/or structure of hydrocarbon molecules. These processes include: :
* Decomposition (dividing) by thermal and catalytic cracking; * Unification (combining) through alkylation and polymerization; and * Alteration (rearranging) with isomerization and catalytic reforming.
To prepare hydrocarbon streams for additional processing and toprepare finished products. Treatment may include removal or separation of aromatics and naphthenes, impurities and undesirable contaminants. Treatment may involve chemical or physical separation e.g. dissolving, absorption, or precipitation using a variety and combination of processes including desalting, drying, hydrodesulfurizing, solvent refining, sweetening, solvent extraction, and solvent dewaxing.
Formulating and Blending
it is the process of mixing and combining hydrocarbon fractions, additives, and other components to produce finished products with specific performance properties.
| Thermal| Catalytic|
DistillationSolvent extractionPropane deasphaltingSolvent dewaxingBlending| VisbreakingDelayed cokingFlexi coking| Hydro treatingCatalytic reformingCatalytic crackingHydrocrackingAlkylation|
These are the refining operations in the refining of oil
2. Crude distillation...