Oil and Gas Processing

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Håvard Devold

Oil and gas production handbook
An introduction to oil and gas production

ISBN 978-82-997886-1-8

PREFACE
This handbook has been compiled for readers with an interest in the oil and gas production industry. It is an overview of the main processes and equipment. When we searched for a suitable introduction to be used for new engineers, I discovered that much of the equipment is described in standards, equipment manuals and project documentation. But little material was found to quickly give the reader an overview of the entire upstream area, whilst still preserving enough detail to let the engineer have an appreciation of the main characteristics and design issues.

This book is by no means a complete description on the detailed design of any part of this process, and many details have been omitted in order to summarize a vast subject. I have included some comments on the control issues, since that is part of my own background. For the same reason, the descriptions will be somewhat biased toward the offshore installations. The material has been compiled from various online resources as well as ABB and customer documents. I am grateful to my colleagues in the industry for providing their valuable input and comments. I have included many photos to give you, the reader an impression what typical facilities or equipment look like. Non-ABB photo sources are given below pictures, other pictures and illustrations are copyright ABB

Edition 2.0 Oslo, May 2009
Håvard Devold

©2006 - 2009 ABB Oil and Gas
Except as otherwise indicated, all materials, including but not limited to design, text, graphics, other files, and the selection and arrangement thereof, are the copyright property of ABB, ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. You may electronically copy and print a hard-copy of this document only for non-commercial or personal use, within the organization that employs you, provided that the materials are not modified and all copyright or proprietary notices are retained. Use of photos and graphics and references form other sources in no way promotes or endorses these products and services and is for illustration only. Pictures credited to Wikipedia are licensed under GNU Free Documentation License (GFDL) or Public Domain (PD) and is published here with the same license. Originals and full information on www.wikimedia.org.

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CONTENTS
Introduction............................................................................................. 5 Process overview ................................................................................... 7 2.1

Facilities......................................................................................... 8 2.1.1
Onshore ................................................................................ 9 2.1.2
Offshore .............................................................................. 10 2.2
Main process sections ................................................................. 13 2.2.1
Wellheads ........................................................................... 13 2.2.2
Manifolds/gathering ............................................................ 14 2.2.3
Separation........................................................................... 15 2.2.4
Gas compression ................................................................ 16 2.2.5
Metering, storage and export.............................................. 17 2.3
Utility systems.............................................................................. 18 3
Reservoir and wellheads...................................................................... 19 3.1
Crude oil and natural gas ............................................................ 19 3.1.1
Crude oil.............................................................................. 19 3.1.2
Natural gas.......................................................................... 21 3.1.3...
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