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2011

H I G H E R S C H O O L C E R T I F I C AT E
E X A M I N AT I O N

Physics

Total marks – 100 General Instructions • Reading time – 5 minutes • Working time – 3 hours • Write using black or blue pen Black pen is preferred • Draw diagrams using pencil • Board-approved calculators may be used • A data sheet, formulae sheets and Periodic Table are provided at the back of this paper • Write your Centre Number and Student Number at the top of pages 9, 13, 15, 19 and 21 Section I Pages 2–22

75 marks This section has two parts, Part A and Part B Part A – 20 marks • Attempt Questions 1–20 • Allow about 35 minutes for this part Part B – 55 marks • Attempt Questions 21–30 • Allow about 1 hour and 40 minutes for this part Section II Pages 23–30

25 marks • Attempt ONE question from Questions 31–35 • Allow about 45 minutes for this section

3430

Section I
75 marks Part A – 20 marks Attempt Questions 1–20 Allow about 35 minutes for this part Use the multiple-choice answer sheet for Questions 1–20.

1

What is the main cause of orbital decay of a satellite in low Earth orbit? (A) Tidal effects of the Moon (B) (C) The Sun’s gravitational field Friction between the atmosphere and the satellite

(D) The interaction of the solar wind with the satellite

2

A 60 kg object has a weight of 240 N on the surface of Planet X. What is the acceleration due to gravity on the surface of Planet X? (A) 0.25 m s–2 (B) (C) 4 m s–2 250 m s–2

(D) 14 400 m s–2

3

Metals have a crystal lattice structure. What part of the metal’s structure does the lattice represent? (A) The number of Cooper pairs (B) (C) The location of the metal ions The position of the free electrons

(D) The energy gap below the conduction band

4

Why are insulators poor conductors of electricity? (A) Insulators do not have a conduction band. (B) (C) The valence bands of insulators do not contain any electrons. Insulators have a large energy band gap and a full valence band.

(D) Insulators have a small energy band gap and a partly filled conduction band. – 2 –

5

Which law best applies to the operation of an electrical transformer? (A) Conservation of Mass (B) Conservation of Energy (C) Conservation of Charge (D) Conservation of Momentum

6

Why is the back emf induced in a motor greater when the motor is rotating faster? (A) A larger current is induced. (B) It takes a greater emf to spin the motor. (C) The rate of change of magnetic flux is greater. (D) More magnetic field lines are being cut per rotation.

7

Two parallel plates are 2 mm apart and have a potential difference of 100 V between them. An electron is placed halfway between the plates. What is the magnitude of the force on the electron? (A) 8.0 × 10–18 N (B) 1.6 × 10–17 N (C) 8.0 × 10–15 N (D) 1.6 × 10–14 N

8

A rocket is launched. Its engine produces a constant thrust for the first 10 seconds and is then switched off. Which graph best illustrates the g-force experienced by an astronaut in the rocket? (A)

g-force

(B)

g-force

0 0 (C)

g-force

0 5 10 time(s) (D)

g-force

0

5

10 time(s)

0 0 5 10 time(s) –3–

0 0 5 10 time(s)

9

The diagram shows a stationary spacecraft next to a building, as seen by an observer across the street.

A short time later the spacecraft is observed to be travelling vertically upwards at 0.8c, relative to the building. Which diagram best represents the appearance of the moving spacecraft, as seen by the observer? (A) (B)

(C)

(D)

10

A student performed an experiment using two identical metal rods connected to a power supply. Rod A was placed at different distances from Rod B, and the measurements on the electronic balance were recorded.

Rod A Rod B Electronic balance Which is the independent variable? (A) The length of the rods (B) (C) The current in Rod A The mass recorded on the balance

(D) The distance between the two rods – 4 –

11

A...
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