Allison M Wood, RN
March 12, 2012
Shoni Davis, RN DNSc
Nursing Theorist Assignment
Sister Callista Roy developed the Adaptation Model of Nursing in 1976 after becoming concerned of the importance of relating the characteristics of nursing to the community. This interest encouraged her to begin developing the model with the purpose of nursing being to support adaptation. Roy began organizing her nursing theory as she developed curriculum for nursing students at Mount St. Mary’s College. According to “Nursing Theory” (2011), the factors that influenced the development of the model included: family, education, religious background, mentors, and clinical experience” (para.2). Roy’s theory begins by asking three questions: 1.Who is the focus of nursing care? 2. What is the goal of nursing care? 3. When is nursing care indicated? According to Roy, adaptation occurs when patients respond positively to changes in environment and use personal awareness to create these positive changes (“Nursing Theory”, 2011). The main concepts or metaparadigms of Roy’s Adaptation Model are made up of the four major components: 1. Person 2. Health 3.Environment 4.Nursing. Using the table below, we will review each metaparadigm in this nursing model.
Define how the theorist defines each of the nursing metaparadigms:| How does this definition influence nursing practice?| How does this definition influence nursing education and curriculum?| Person- According to Roy's model, a person is a bio-psycho-social being in constant interaction with a changing environment. The person is also defined as “an adaptive system…a whole comprised of parts that function as a unity for some purpose” (Andrews & Roy, 1991, p. 4). He or she uses innate and acquired mechanisms to adapt. The model includes people as individuals, as well as in groups such as families, organizations, and communities. This also includes society as a whole (“Nursing Theory, 2011). Roy views the concept of person from a Totality Approach, because in this approach the human being is viewed in a specific way as a psychosociospiritual organism who can manipulate the environment in order to maintain and promote balance (Parse, 1987). | Using Roy’s model, the person is viewed as an adaptive system with cognator and regulator subsystems acting to maintain adaptation in the four adaptive modes: physiologic-physical, self-concept-group identity, role function, and interdependence (“Boston College”, 2010). The nurse can implement the physiologic-physical mode by assessing the individual’s five basic needs of oxygenation, nutrition, elimination, activity and rest, and protection and the four complex processes such as fluid, electrolyte, and acid-base balance; neurologic function; endocrine function (“Boston College”, 2010). Self-concept-group identity need is spiritual integrity so that the person can exist with a sense of purpose in the world. The nurse should address spiritual beliefs and needs so that proper resources and time can be used to assist the patient with these needs. Role function need is social integrity, which includes knowing who one is in relation to others. The nurse should clearly define his or her role as one of assisting the patient in adapting to the current situation. Finally, interdependence is the need to achieve reliability in relationships by the giving and receiving of respect and value through effective communication. The nurse can help the patient achieve this goal by speaking clearly to the patient and by using words that the person can understand. | For the purpose of study in nursing, biological, psychological, spiritual, intellectual and socio-cultural dimensions of human beings and stages of human development are delineated as they affect behavior and health (“The College of New Jersey, 2012). These dimensions operate within and upon the human being in an open, interrelated, interdependent, and interactive...