Nursing: Health Care and Illness Acute Illness

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← Definition of health:
“A state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being, and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity.”(WHO, 1948) ← Definition of illness:
“A highly personal state in which person’s physical, emotional, intellectual, social, developmental, or spiritual functioning is thought to be diminished. ← Definition of wellness:
“Wellness is a state of well-being .It defines by each person relative to his or her own values and beliefs *(Environmental, social, emotional, physical, spiritual, intellectual, occupational)

Models of health and wellness
← Clinical Model
Viewed as physiologic system with related functions, and health is identified by the absence of signs and symptoms of disease or injury. When signs and symptoms are no longer present, the medical practitioner considers the individual’s health restored ← Role Performance Model

Health is defined in terms of the individual’s ability to fulfill societal roles, that is, to perform his or her work. ← Adaptive Model
Health is a creative process; disease is a failure in adaptation or mal-adaptation. The aim of treatment is restore the ability of the person to adapt. ← Eudemonistic Model
Health is seen as a condition of actualization or realization of person’s potential. Illness is a condition that prevents self-actualization

← Agent-Host-Environment Model
The model is used primarily in predicting illness rather than in promoting Wellness, although identification of risk factors that result from the interactions of agent, host , and environment are helpful in promoting and maintaining health. 1. Agent (Any environmental factor or stressor)

2. Host (Person who may or may not be at risk of acquiring a disease, eg: Family history, age, and lifestyle) 3. Environment (All factor external to the host, e.g.: climate, living conditions, sound level, and economic level) ← Health-illness Continua

➢ Measure person’s perceived level of wellness
➢ Health and illness/disease opposite ends of a health continuum ➢ Move back and forth within this continuum day by day
➢ Wide ranges of health or illness
■ Dunn’s High-Level Wellness Grid
Health axis and environmental axis intersect forming four quadrants 1. High-level wellness in favorable environment
Ex. Person who implement healthy lifestyle and has complete resources to support his lifestyle 2. emergent-high level wellness in unfavorable environment Ex. Person who has knowledge to implement healthy lifestyle but does not implement adequate self-care because of some family responsibility

3. Protected poor health in favourable environment
ex. Ill person whose needs are met by the health care system 4. Poor health in an unfavourable environment
ex. Young child who is starving in a drought stricken country

■ Travis’s Illness– wellness continuum
• compose of 2 arrows pointing in opposite direction and joined at neutral point • movement to the left of neutral point indicate progressive decrease in state of health • movement to the right of the neutral point indicates increasing level of health • traditional treatment model > help only the individual move from left to the neutral point • Wellness model > help move individual beyond the neutral point to high level of wellness

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Health belief models
These models can be useful tools in developing programs for helping people Change to healthier lifestyles and develop a more positive attitude toward preventive health measure. ■ Health Locus of Control Model

Variables influencing health status, beliefs, and practices: ➢ Internal Variables:
✓ Biologic dimension (genetic makeup, gender, age, and developmental level) ✓ Psychologic dimension (mind-body interactions and self-concept) ✓ Cognitive dimension (intellectual factors include lifestyle...
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