Nursing and Theory

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Theories and models of nursing practice

Dr. Sabah Abbas Ahmad College of Nursing \ university of Baghdad Sabah.abbas@ymail.com

COMPETENCIES

1. Definitions of theory, concept, model, proposition. 2. Explain the relationships of concepts and propositions to theory 3.Discuss the purpose of theory. 4. Explain the USE OF theories from other disciplines: .

.5. Explain the interdependent roles of nursing practice, nursing theory, and nursing research.

.6.History and evolution of nursing theory 7. Identify m Common concept in nursing Theories. 8. Identify the three categories relating to the scope of theories. ..-

Theories and models of nursing practice
Introduction:
Nursing theory provides a perspective from which to define the what of nursing, to describe the who of nursing (who is the client) and when nursing is needed, and to identify the boundaries and goals of nursing’s therapeutic activities. Theory is fundamental to effective nursing practice and research. The

professionalization of nursing has been and is being brought about through the development and use of nursing theory. The basic elements that structure a nursing theory are concepts and propositions. In a theory, propositions represent how concepts affect each other. A concept is the basic building block of a theory.

Definitions
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A concept :
Is a vehicle of thought? According to Chinn and Kramer (1995, p. 78), the refers to a “complex mental formulation of ...our Perceptions of an observable fact that

term concept

the world.” A concept labels or names a phenomenon,

can be perceived through the senses and explained. A concept assists us in formulating a mental image about an object or situation. Concepts help us to name things and occurrences in the world around us and assist us in communicating with each other about the world. Independence, self-care, and caring are just a few examples of concepts frequently encountered in health care. Theories are formulated by linking concepts together. -A conceptual framework or Model: is a structure that links global concepts

together and represents the unified whole of a larger reality. The specifics about phenomena within the global whole are better explained by theory. By its nature, a concept is a socially constructed label that may represent more than a single phenomenon. For example, when you hear the word chair, a mental image that probably comes to mind is an item of furniture used for sitting. The word chair could

represent many different kinds of furniture for sitting, such as a desk chair, a high chair, or an easy chair . It is important to remember that the same concept may be used differently in various theories. For example, one nursing theory may use the concept of environment to mean all that surrounds a human being (the external environment), whereas another theory may use this concept to mean the external environment and all the biological and psychological components of the person (the internal environment). - What Is a Proposition? A proposition: (another structural element of a theory) is a statement that proposes a relationship between concepts. An example of a nonnursing proposition might be the statement “people seem to be happier in the springtime.” This proposition establishes a relationship between the concept of happiness and the time of the year. A nursing propositional statement linking the concept of helplessness and the concept of loss might be stated as “multiple and rapid losses predispose one to feelings of helplessness.” Propositional statements in a theory represent the theorist’s particular view of which concepts fit together and, in most theories, establish how concepts affect one another. What Is a Theory? A theory: is a set of concepts and propositions that provide an orderly way to view phenomena. In the scientific literature, Nursing theory is developed to describe the phenomenon (process, occurrence, or event) called nursing. Nursing...
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