Notes on History World Affairs Gce O-Levels Course 2138

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Peace Treaties
Peace Treaties

Versailles
Aim: punish Germany, prevent war and allow self-determination Territorial
Aim: to weaken Germany by taking away territories, to get compensation for cost of war by gaining land, and to allow for self-determination -Germany lost 13.5% of land, 12.5% of population, 15% of farm production, 48% iron production and 16% coal production Alsace-Lorraine| France|

Eupen, Moresnet, Malmedy| Belgium|
North Schleswig| Denmark (through plebiscite) self-determination| West Prussia, Posen, Upper Silesia| Poland (make Poland stronger by having access to Baltic Sea increase trade ↑economic growth| Danzig| Free City under LoN|

Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania| Independent states self-determination| Memel | Lithuania|
Saar| Under LoN for 15yrs, then plebiscite; France allowed use of coalmines| Rhineland| Demilitarised under allied control for 15 years| Anschluss| Forbidden|
Colonies
-Germany had to renounce all rights to her colonies
-became mandates under LoN
-supposedly administered by advanced nations who would help them develop into modern states -ended up being used for Allies’ own purposes; equivalent to annexation German East Africa, parts of Togoland, Cameroon| Britain| Togoland, Cameroon| France|

German Southwest Africa| South Africa|
-Germany also had to give up trade concessions in China and Morocco -The Rhine, Elbe, Oder and upper Danube were placed under International Control Outcome: Germans were upset by the loss of land as it meant reduction in production of agriculture, iron and coal which would weaken Germany Military

Aim: To keep Germany’s military strength weak so that it could not threaten its neighbours again -army was limited to 100 000 volunteers enlisted for 12 years and there were to be no tanks, armoured cars, heavy artillery or military aircraft -navy was restricted to 6 battleships of limited tonnage, 6 cruisers, 12 destroyers, a handful of smaller vessels and no submarines -left bank of the Rhine and 50km strip on the right bank were to be demilitarized as a further concession to France -Allied Army of Occupation was to be stationed on German side of Cologne, Coblenz and Trier to ensure the terms were kept, consisted mainly of French troops, to be kept there for 15 years -to prevent German aggression and invasion of France; Britain and US also promised to help if attacked Economic

Aim: to seek compensation to victorious powers for loss of lives and damage due to war -Germany had to pay £6.6b over 42 years, with £1b paid immediately -bulk of payment went to France; Germany complained reparations were a burden -when Germany defaulted, France invaded Ruhr and seized £40m; resulted in economic collapse -Allies felt more gradual scheme was needed Dawes and Young Plan -Dawes: 2 year moratorium, US gave loan of 40m

-Young: cut reparations to £2b over 59 years, aborted due to Depression Political
-war criminals to be tried; Kaiser fled to Holland
-LoN was set up to preserve world peace

St Germain
Territorial
Aim: to weaken Austria by taking away territories, to get compensation for cost of war by gaining land, and to allow for self-determination Bohemia, Moravia(which were wealthy industrial provinces)| Czechoslovakia| Dalmatia, Bosnia, Herzegovina| Yugoslavia|

Bukovina| Romania|
Galicia| Poland|
South Tyrol, Trentino, Istria, Trieste| Italy|
Military
Aim: To keep Austria’s military strength weak so that it could not threaten its neighbours again -army restricted to 30,000
-only 1 armament factory
-much of its navy went to Allies and it was now restricted to 4 patrol boats Outcome: Austria would not be able to start another war and even had problems defending itself Economic/Reparations
Aim: To get reparations from Austria as compensation for Allied expenses in the war; War Guilt Clause to justify -had to pay reparations but could not pay in cash as republic was too poor -suffered severe...
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