Notes of Methodology

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  • Topic: Affix, Morpheme, Word
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Chapter I Historical Background of English vocabulary

Linguistic Notions:

1. Cognate
2. Etymology

3. Jargon

4. The core vocabulary
5. The learned vocabulary
6. Dialect
7. Inflection
6.

Linguistic knowledge

3 Language classification

(a) Isolating
Each idea expressed in a separate word or morpheme; words tend to be monosyllabic e.g, Chinese;
(b) Agglutinative
Words made of multiple syllables; each syllable has meaning e.g., Turkish. For example, ev (house), evler (houses), evlerde (in the houses), evlerden (from the houses)

(c) Inflective
An alteration in or addition to a form of a word to indicate such things as case, gender, number, mood, and tense; one fusional affix may mark several grammatical categories at the same time, e.g., Latin & Old English

(d) Incorporative
Major sentence elements incorporated into single word e.g., Inuktitut (Eskimo): Qasuiirsarvigssarsingitluinarnarpuq means "Someone did not find a completely suitable resting place"

3. Language family
• In time, with enough migrations, a single language can evolve into an entire family of languages. • Languages in the same family, share many common grammatical features and many of the key words • Indo-European language family

4. Language change
•Accents
•Dialects
•Languages

Stories about words:

1.applaud / explode
2.gossip, kidnap

Expanding vocabulary

1. comprise

2. incomprehensible
3. accelerate

4. target words

5. inference
6. attribute
7. venerable
8. vulnerable
9. illustrative
10. environment



The development of English vocabulary

For English majors, we should have some ideas about the historical development of the English vocabulary as well as about its rapid growth today. • 450-1066, Old English Period of full inflections

• 1066-1476, Middle English Period of leveled inflections • 1476--1776,Early Modern English Period of lost inflections

The history of the English language begins with the conquest and settlement of what is now England by the Angles, Saxons and the Jutes from about 450 AD. The language they spoke was Anglo-Saxon, which replaced the Celtic spoken by the former inhabitants.

A. Old English or Anglo-Saxon period (449-1066): contains some fifty or sixty thousand words, which were chiefly Anglo-Saxon with a small mixture of Old Norse (a general term for the Scandinavian language in its very early stage)words as a result the Scandinavian or the Danish conquests of England in the ninth century. But the Old Norse words (such as are, they, their, them, till, call die, give, take, skin, sky, window, ill , weak, etc.) were so much like the Anglo-Saxon that it was almost impossible to distinguish one from the other. The English language borrowed words from Latin during the Old English period, especially after the introduction of Christianity into Britain in 597. It is natural that most of the Latin words borrowed at that time were related to religion, Note: Foreign Influence on the old English (all loan words here are in their modern form).

• The Celtic
Affix inherited: for-, in-, -ful, -dom, -hood, -ship, -ness, -the, -ful, -ish

• The Latin
altar, candle, disciple, hymn, martyr, nun, priest, pope, shrine, temple Suffix inherited from Latin: -able, -ible, -ent, -al, -ous, -ive

• The Scandinavian Influence: the invasion of the Vikings in 790 A.D are, they, their, them, till, call die, give, take, skin, sky, window, ill , weak Suffix inherited from Scandinavian: -sk

B. Middle English period (1066-1476): which is characterized by the strong influence of French...
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