Non Tariff Barriers to Trade

Topics: World Trade Organization, International trade, Free trade Pages: 97 (25898 words) Published: December 7, 2010




Study prepared by

Dr. Hanspeter Tschäni
Dr. Laurence Wiedmer

Bureau Arthur Dunkel
56, rue du Stand – CH - 1204 Genève
Tél : +41 22 312 48 35 – Fax : +41 22 312 48 71
E-mail :

ASYCUDAAutomated System for Customs Data
BiHBosnia and Herzegovina
BSECBlack Sea Economic Cooperation
CAFAOCustoms and Fiscal Office
CAM-A/CAM-ESCustoms Assistance Mission in Albania and Eastern Croatia CEFTACentral European Free Trade Agreement
CEICentral European Initiative
CIFCost, Insurance, Freight
DEMDeutsche Mark
EFTAEuropean Free Trade Association
EUEuropean Union
FIASForeign Investment Advisory Service
FTAsFree Trade Agreements
GATTGeneral Agreement on Tariffs and Trade
HSHarmonized System (Harmonized Commodity Description and Coding System) IDAInternational Development Association
ISOInternational Organisation for Standardization
MFNMost-Favoured Nation
MoUMemorandum of Understanding
NTBNon-Tariff Barrier
OHROffice of the High Representative
QRQuantitative restriction
RSRepublic of Srpska
SAAStabilisation and Association Agreement
SECISouthern European Cooperative Initiative
SEETISouth East Europe Trade Initiative
SPSSanitary and Phytosanitary (measures)
TBTTechnical Barriers to Trade
TIRTransport International Routier
TTFSETrade and Transport Facilitation in Southeast Europe
UN-ECEUnited Nations Economic Commission for Europe
UNMIKUnited Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo VATValue Added Tax
WTOWorld Trade Organization



IIThe meaning and use of non-tariff barriers to
trade in trade agreements7

IIIOn-going efforts to deal with non-tariff barriers to trade14 in South Eastern Europe

IVFindings and conclusions of the study19

VCountry sheets25

Bosnia and Herzegovina33
Federal Republic of Yugoslavia44
Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia59


The authors71


Upon taking up its work, the Working Group on Trade Liberalisation and Facilitation (WG) set up under Working Table II of the Stability Pact singled out the issue of non-tariff barriers to trade (NTBs) as being crucial for improving trade relations among the countries of South Eastern Europe, and between them and the rest of the world, and decided to devote special attention to it. In order to enable the WG to propose actionable and concrete solutions to remove NTBs, a study was commissioned whose terms of reference (TOR) were discussed and agreed by the WG[1]. The Swiss Government declared its readiness to finance the study and the implementation was entrusted to the Office A. Dunkel in Geneva.

According to the agreed TOR, the study on non-tariff barriers should achieve the following objectives:

1. to provide state-of-the-art information on the approach utilized in the World Trade Organisation (WTO), the European Union (EU), the European Free Trade Association (EFTA) and the Central European Free Trade Agreement (CEFTA) and others towards defining NTBs and dealing with them; 2. to provide information on efforts and projects already under way towards exploring and dealing with NTBs and related problems of the countries of South Eastern Europe; 3. to single out and comment those NTBs not already dealt with elsewhere and having an impact on regional trade and trade relations with the outside world, paying particular attention to

-obstacles to the trans-border flow of goods (as opposed to services, intellectual property rights and investment); -obstacles caused by measures which are controlled at the border: administrative procedures, licensing, quantitative restrictions (QRs), standards and related measures; -all obstacles of a given...
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