Founded by Alfred Nobel, the Nobel Prize is awarded to candidates in the fields of physics, chemistry, medicine or physiology, literature, economic sciences, and peace every year since 1901 – except for economic sciences, which was introduced as a Nobel Prize in 1968 by the Sveriges Riksbank. On account of World War I and II, the Nobel Prize was not awarded only on nine occasions since the established year from 1901. Alfred Nobel, a Swedish engineer, chemist, and philanthropist, created a will that would bequeath 94% of his assets into a series of prizes for those who contribute the highest benefit to mankind in the respective fields. Recipients of the Nobel Prize – which can be shared by no more than three people and can also be awarded posthumously in certain cases – receive a medal, sum of money, and diploma for their achievements and are elected by the Nobel Foundation. The Nobel Foundation was created by the executors of Nobel’s will, Rudolf Liljequist and Ragnar Sohlman. The private organization that is the Nobel Foundation is also responsible for administrative details and finances of the prizes. The prizes are presented according to their respective field. The Royal Swedish Academy of the Sciences awards the prizes for chemistry, physics, and economic sciences. The Swedish Academy presents the Nobel Prize in literature. The prize for physiology or medicine is awarded by the National Assembly at Karolinska Institutet. Finally, the award for peace is presented by the Norwegian Nobel Committee and is the only award to be presented in Norway rather than in Sweden. All prizes are awarded based upon several factors but mainly through Nobel’s maxim of delivering the greatest benefit to mankind and is ultimately decided by the Nobel Committees.
One hundred and three Nobel Prizes in medicine or physiology have been awarded since 1901 and two-hundred one individuals are known as laureates in the field since the prize may be shared by three or more...
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