Nineteen Eighty-Four, a Dystopian Novel about Winston Smith

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Nineteen Eighty-Four: INGSOC
Nineteen Eighty-Four is a dystopian novel about the life of a man named Winston Smith. Winston Smith is living under the totalitarian government, the Inner Party, in a land called Oceania. This totalitarian government has ideology called INGSOC, which it uses to obtain complete power. Within this ideology there are the Four Sacred Principles. They are: the mutability of the past, doublethink, newspeak, and the denial of objective reality. All four of these methods are intertwined and are used together, by the Inner Party, to achieve their ideology of INGSOC and to acquire absolute control over the people living in Oceania.

The first Sacred Principle that the Inner Party uses to achieve absolute power is the mutability of the past. Mutability of the past is the ability to change the past, at any time, to fit current events. By doing this, current events seem more believable and people become less aware of what is actually happening. The effect this has on the people living in Oceania is that if the past fits current events, then people will be less willing to question what the Inner Party’s motives. The Inner Party uses the slogan “Who controls the past controls the future. Who controls the present controls the past.” The slogan is an important example of the Party’s technique of using false history to break down the psychological independence of its subjects. According to them, control of the past ensures control of the future and they control the present, allowing them to control the past. This control over the future leads them to their ultimate goal of achieving absolute power. The Party creates a past that was a time of misery and slavery from which it claims to have liberated the human race, thus compelling people to work toward the Party’s goals.

The second Sacred Principle, doublethink, is another technique used by the Inner Party to accomplish their goals. Doublethink is the act of simultaneously and passionately holding...
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