1. What is the WACC and why is it important to estimate a firm’s cost of capital? Do you agree with Joanna Cohen’s WACC calculation? Why or why not? WACC- The weighted average cost of capital is the rate (percentage) that a company has to pay to its creditors and shareholders to finance assets. It is the “cost” of their worth. Companies raise money from many different types of securities and loans and the various required returns are what make up the cost of capital. WACC is used to decide if an investment is worth it or not based on the weights of debt and equity. Why WACC is important

* To decide what projects to accept or reject. Rate of return should be equal to or greater than company cost of capital * Knowing cost of debt and cost of equity helps a company determine how they should be structured and whether more financing should come from equity or debt

I do not agree with Cohen’s calculation for WACC. While some of her calculations were good, I think that there were some that she could have used different numbers and rates to come up with more accurate numbers. WACC=(E/(D+E)) Ke + (D/(D+E)) Kd (1-t)

2. If you do not agree with Cohen’s analysis, calculate your own WACC for Nike and be prepared to justify your assumptions Cost of debt-based on yield to maturity
PMT= 100(.0675)=6.75
N= 20 (2)=40
FV= 100
PV= 95.6
I/Y= computed on calculator=7.0832(semiannually)

7.0832(2)=14.166% annually

COST OF EQUITY

Cost of equity using CAPM
Ke =Rf + Beta(Rf-Rm)=Rf+Beta(MRP)

Steps in determining Ke using the CAPM
1. Market risk premium
Geometric (5.9) or arithmetic mean (7.5)?
I used the geometric mean. I think that it is a better method of valuation for investment purposes because it takes into account the fact that the numbers used are not independent of one another from year to year and do have an effect.

2. Multiply market risk premium by the beta
Beta choice- I think that the average beta (.8) makes the most sense to...

...Nike, Inc.: Cost of Capital
Case 15
Financial Administration
FINC 5713-180
Team 1
Fall 2013.
October 8, 2013.
Introduction
Kimi Ford a portfolio manager at NorthPoint Group which is a mutual-fund management firm, is considering to buy some shares from Nike, inc even if it’s share price had declined from the beginning of the year, for the Northpoint Large-cap fund she managed which invested mostly in Fortune 500 companies and it was doing well despite the decline in the stock market over the last 18 months. Kimi therefore surveyed the results of Nike’s fiscal-year 2001which had been revealed a week earlier.
Issues that caused a decline in market sales as revealed by the management of Nike
1. Revenues since 1997 had stopped growing but remained around $9.0 billion.
2. The net income had fallen from $800m to $580m a decline of $220 million.
3. Nike’s market share in the U.S. athletic shoe industry had fallen from 48 percent in 1997 to 42 percent in 2000 (6% decline)
4. The issue of Supply-chain and strong dollar exchange rate also affected the revenue negatively.
Nike’s Strategic plan to address the above issues
1. Increase revenues by developing more athletic-shoe products in the mid-priced range.
2. Push its apparel line which had performed tremendously well.
3. Exert more expense control on the cost side.
4. Nike’s executives expressed...

...Case Analysis of Nike, Inc.: Cost of Capital
Apparently, the issue of Nike’s case is to control and check the calculation cost of capital done by Joanna Cohen who is the assistant of a portfolio manager at NorthPoint Group. But I am willing to tell you that it can be a complex case in which we can doubt about sensitivity analysis done by Kimi Ford (portfolio manager) because her assumptions such as Revenue Growth Rate, COGS / Sales, S &A / Sales, Current Assets / Sales, and Current Liability / Sales have been adopted from previous income statements and balance sheets from 1995 to 2001. Perhaps, we can take new assumptions. Generally, the case issue is to examine if the share price of Nike is undervalue or overvalue and the common stock of Nike Inc should be added to the North Point Group’s Mutual Fund Portfolio or not.
Now, let me approve Kimi Ford’s analysis and tell you only the mistakes of Joanna Cohen.
What is the cost of capital?
The cost of capital is the rate of return that a firm must earn on the projects in which it invests to maintain the market value of its stock. Cohen calculated a weighted average cost of capital (WACC) of 8.4 percent by using the Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM) for Nike Inc. I do not agree with Joanna Cohen because of below...

...financials of Nike Inc. to consider buying shares for the NorthPoint Large-Cap Fund that she managed. A week prior, Nike Inc. held an analysts’ meeting to share their 2001 fiscal results and develop a strategy to revitalize the company.
II. Background of Firm
Nike’s revenues since 1997 had grown from $9 billion, while net income had fallen $220 million. A study written by Douglas Robson printed in Business Week revealed that Nike’s market share in the U.S. athletic shoe industry had fallen from 48 percent to 42 percent since 1997. In addition, supply-chain issues and the effects of a strong dollar negatively affected revenues. In the meeting, management planned to increase revenues by developing athletic-shoe products in ranges varying between $70-$90 and push their apparel line. Nike’s executives expressed that the company would still continue with a long-term revenue growth target of 8-10 percent and earnings-growth target above 15 percent.
III. Statement of Situation
After reading all the analysts’ reports, Kimi Ford decided to develop her own discounted-cash-flow forecast to achieve the investment decision for her mutual fund. The forecast showed that at a 12 percent discount rate, Nike’s stock price was overvalued at $4.82 per share. She created a sensitivity analysis, which revealed that Nike’s stock was undervalued at discount rates of less than 11.7 percent. The results concluded from the sensitivity analysis made Kimi Ford...

...evaluating Nike, Inc. (“Nike”) to potentially buy shares of their stock for the fund she manages, the NorthPoint Large-Cap Fund. This fund mostly invests in Fortune 500 companies, with an emphasis on value investing. This Fund has performed well over the last 18 months despite the decline in the stock market.
Ford has done a significant amount of research through analysts’ reports, which had mixed reviews. She found no clear guidance from the analysts and decided to develop her own discounted cash flow forecast to come to a conclusion. Her forecast showed that Nike was overvalued at its current share price causing a discount rate of 12%; however, a quick sensitivity analysis showed that Nike was undervalued at a discount rate below 11.17%.
Ford then asked her assistant, Joanna Cohen, to estimate Nike’s cost of capital, which, per Cohen’s analysis, came to 8.4%.
Background
The cost of capital is the minimum return that a company should make on an investment or the minimum return necessary for investors to cover their cost. Two main factors of the cost of capital are the cost of debt and the cost of equity.
The capital used for funding a business should earn returns for the investors who risk their capital. For an investment to be...

... Ford considered buying shares of Nike, Inc., the well-known athletic shoe manufacturer. It would be prudent of Ford to base her assessment on Nike’s financial reports for 2001. Around the same time, Nike held an analysts’ meeting to disclose those financial results. They also addressed ways to revitalize the company, since share price was beginning to decline and revenues had plateaued at around $9 billion. Although Nike projected a rosy future, many analysts had mixed reactions to the projections. Ford was right to come up with her own forecast, seeing as the reactions ranged from too aggressive to growth opportunities.
In order to completely analyze Nike and its possible place in the NorthPoint Large-Cap Fund, Ford needs to know Nike’s cost of capital. One of the most useful ways to measure the cost of capital is the weighted average cost of capital (WACC). Theoretically, the optimal capital structure in the mix of types of financing that produces the lowest WACC. WACC is calculated by multiplying the cost of each type of financing a company uses, be it debt or the many types of equity, by their respective weights. It is the rate of return that a company needs to earn in order to satisfy the returns they have to pay out to debtholders and stockholders. The respective weight of each type of financing is...

...NikeCost of Capital Analysis
October 22, 2010
1
I. Introduction
In this case analysis Kimi Ford, a portfolio manager for a large cap value mutual fund, NorthPointGroup is considering adding shares of Nike, Inc., an athletic shoe manufacturer as a new position in her fund. On July 5, 2001, Nike's share price had declined significantly since the beginning of the year. Although the market in general had declined over the last 18 months as well, NorthPoint Large-Cap Fund had firmly out- performed the market. Kimi had read mixed reports from the analysts, and decided to do her own discounted cash flow forecast for Nike, in order to come to a clearer conclusion. Her forecast showed that at discount rates below 11.17% Nike was undervalued. She asked her assistant to calculate cost of capital, and her assistant's analysis of the weighted average cost of capital was given in a memo to Kimi. On a closer look at her assistant’s analysis, the numbers used for the analysis appear to be wrong based on several of her assumptions in the calculation. My analysis of the WACC numbers, and the risks and return for potentially purchasing Nike shares for the portfolio follow in the report below.
II. Analysis...

...1. Weighted Average Cost of Capital (WACC) is used to determine the average cost of financing a company. Companies are funded using both debt and equity and both require varying rates of return. WACC allows you to put a “weight” on the different types of financing and their differing rates to get a total cost of capital.
Team 12 does not agree with Joanna Cohen’s WACC calculation because we feel she took some liberties in her numbers, the most notable being that of equity. Ms. Cohen used book equity, which was $3,494,500,000. Since Nike is a publicly traded company, the stock price should be multiplied by the number of shares outstanding in order to get the true equity of the firm. 271,500,000 multiplied by $42.09, would give you $11,427,435,000 in equity.
In Ms. Cohen’s calculation debt was 27% of total financing and equity was 73%. When using market value for equity those numbers change to 10.2% for debt and 89.8% for equity.
2. Using the following numbers and inputs, our WACC is 9.53%:
To calculate the cost of debt the yield of Nike’s publicly traded debt is utilized:
● N = 40 (semi-annual coupon, 2 x 20)
● PV = $95.60
● PMT = 3.375 (semi-annual coupon, half of 6.75)
● FV = 100 (Amount of debt in future)
Inserting the numbers above in our calculations result in 3.583724 for the I/YR which is multiplied by two to get an annual rate of...

...Nike, Inc.: Cost of Capital
1. What is the WACC and why is it important to estimate a firm’s cost of capital? Do you agree with Joanna Cohen’s WACC calculation? Why or why not?
The WACC of a firm is the overall required return on the firm as whole. It is the discount rate to use for cash flows with risk that is similar to the overall firm. The WACC lets you see how much interest the company has to pay for every dollar it finances. The WACC of a firm increases at the Beta and rate of return on equity increases. A decrease in WACC indicates a decrease in valuation and a higher risk. When the capital structure changes, the WACC will change in a U shape pattern. Debt is considered less risky than equity, so equity cost is usually higher than the cost of debt. The lowest WACC is the optimal capital structure.
• Joanna used the book value of equity when she should have used the market value of equity. Which is equal to the number of outstanding shares multiplied by the price. This will change her weight of debt calculation.
• She used the book value of debt, which is ok because it is usually close to the market value.
• The cost of debt she used was the total interest expense for the year divided by the average debt balance. She should have divided the total interest expense by the long term debt of the company.
• The tax rate that...

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