Objective
As you are probably aware from everyday experience, heavier objects require a greater force to move around than lighter ones. Isaac Newton quantified observations like this one into what is probably the most useful expression in all physics: F = M a, otherwise known as Newton’s Law of Motion. Here, F is the net external force acting on mass M, and a is the resulting acceleration.

The primary objective for this lab is to test the conjecture that Newton’s second Law of Motion does apply to actual laboratory measured motions.

Introduction
The interaction between various objects is responsible for a whole variety of phenomena in our inverse. If no interactions existed, our universe would consist of a bunch of objects engaged in motion at constant velocity in accordance to Newton’s first law. We couldn’t even perceive this universe, because our perceptions are due to interactions with the external environment.

Force is a critical physical concept. While we can’t test every possible situation in which force act, we do know that Newton’s second law was based on Newton’s observations that the acceleration of an object experience is directly proportional to the applied force. In equation form this is

F = Ma
Where F is applied force, a is its acceleration, and M is the coefficient relating force and acceleration. M is a property of the object being accelerated called mass and is directly proportional to how much force is needed to achieve a given acceleration. In other words, more massive objects require greater forces to achieve the acceleration as less massive objects. We will be testing the proportionality of acceleration to force in today’s lab exercise.

...Newton’s second law of motion (Car vs Suv)
According to newton’s second law of motion, Acceleration is produced when a force acts on a mass. The greater the mass is, the grater the acceleration is needed to move forward. This law basically states that a force applied to the objects changes its velocity overtime in the direction of the force that is applied, the acceleration is directly proportional to the force, as an example, if pushing on an object, causing it to accelerate, and then you push, the same object three times harder, the acceleration will be three times greater and the acceleration is inversely proportional to the mass of an object, if you push equally on two objects, and one of the objects has five times more mass than the other, it will accelerate at one fifth of the object.
SUV’s have the greater mass than the car. So SUV’s need more force than light car to move forward in the direction the force is applied, we can say that SUV’s need more force to act than a car, for example driving an SUV and light car at the same velocity, the force needed for car would be less than the SUV and the car would run faster than a suv as it need less force than an SUV. SUV requires more fuel than a normal car. A Car could run faster than an SUV and it even requires less fuel. Therefore, the more mass the object has, it requires more force to make it move forward and to act on it.
Newton's second...

...Experiment 3.1 Newton’s Second Law of Motion Aim: To investigate the relationship between net force, mass and acceleration Hypothesis: Since Newton’s second law of motion states that the acceleration of an object is directly proportional to the total force acting upon that object, we can assume that the more mass being pulled down on the cart the greater the acceleration of it will be and therefore the greater its net force will be. Apparatus: Wheeled carts Pulleys Balance Ticker Tape Weights String Factors affecting Acceleration of Cart: Mass of Weights pulling down the cart Friction of cart wheels along the ground Mass of the cart Length of the String to the pulley Friction of sting against the pulley Independent Variables: Mass of Pulley Mass of Trolley Dependent Variables: Acceleration Net force Total Mass Results {draw:frame} {draw:frame} Discussion The Cart went faster when it had 105 grams of weights pulling down on it compared to when it had 5 grams of weight pulling on it, thus proving my hypothesis. Just by putting an extra 100 grams of weight pulling down on the cart acceleration was around 3.8 times faster than previously and so force also increased by a scale factor of that amount. We can assume that another extra 100 grams of weight pulling down on the cart would increase the acceleration...

...Dynamics describes the relationship between force and motion.
Force? What is it?
Put in simple terms, a force is a push
or a pull. It pertains to any influence
that causes a change in an object’s
state of motion.
• Contact Force
A contact force is produced when
there is direct contact between two
interacting bodies.
• Long-Range Force
A long-range force is produced when
one body influences the state of
motion of another body even if these
two bodies are separated by empty
space.
• Concurrent Forces
Concurrent forces are forces whose
lines of action intersect at a common
point. These forces
typically bring about
rectilinear motion.
• Nonconcurrent Forces
Nonconcurrent forces are forces
whose lines of action do not intersect
at a common point. These forces
typically bring about rotary motion.
The Laws of Motion form the
foundation of dynamics.
First Law of Motion
An object will remain at rest or
continue to move at a constant
velocity unless acted upon by an
external force.
F = net force
If F = 0 ⇒ v = constant
Third Law of Motion
For every action there is an equal but
opposite reaction. These two forces
(action & reaction) act on different
bodies.
Freaction
Faction = − Freaction Faction
Second Law of Motion
When a net external force acts on a
body, the body accelerates in the
direction...

...How does the mass of a ball affect the
distance it will travel ?
Exploring Newtons 2nd Law of motion.
Background Research
How does changing the mass of an object effect how far it will travel ?
This question can be answered by Newtons 2nd law of motion; Force equals mass
multiplied acceleration (F= ma). This law states that a force on an object will cause it to
accelerate in the direction of the force. The greater the force exerted on the object, the
greater the acceleration. But how does mass effect this ?
To ﬁnd out, an experiment will be put into place where the force will be applied by rolling
balls of different masses down a ramp.
The distance an object travels once in motion depends on the force initially applied to it as
well as any counteracting forces, such as friction or air resistance.
The greater the mass of the ball rolling down the ramp, the farther it should travel when the
force begins the same.
An example of how this relates to real life is the scenario of two people at a water park. If a
man with a large mass and a man with a smaller mass race down a water slide, the slider
with the larger mass will reach the bottom ﬁrst and travel further. Present, is the frictional
resistance on the slide as well as air resistance on the body of the slider. Both these
resistances will slow down the sliders.
The total acceleration is...

...DYNAMICS
-studies the relationship of motion to the forces that causes it.
Types of Forces:
(a) Normal Force, n :When an object rests
or pushes on a surface, the surface exerts
a push on it that is directed perpendicular
to the surface.
(b) Friction Force, f : In addition to the
normal force, a surface may exert a
frictional force on a object, directed
parallel to the surface and opposite the
motion or impending motion of the
object.
f s = µ s n - static friction, maximum friction before the
object begins to move.
n
ff kk ==µµk k n - kinetic friction, friction on a moving object.
DYNAMICS
Types of Forces:
(c) Tension Force, T : A pulling force
applied on an object by any longitudinal
object. Along the longitudinal object,
tension is always directed away any point
of consideration.
(d) Compression Force, C : A pushing force
applied on an object by any longitudinal
object. Along the longitudinal object,
compression is always directed towards
any point of consideration.
(e) Weight, W : The pull of gravity on an
object. It is always directed vertically
downward.
W = mg
point of
consideration
point of
consideration
NEWTON’s LAWS OF MOTION
F =0
F
F=
0
=0
F =0
F
FFxxx ==
0
=00
=000
FFyx ==
F
Fyy = 0
Fy = 0
First Condition of
Equilibrium
NEWTON’s LAWS OF MOTION
Example 1. A large wrecking ball is held in place by two light steel
cables as shown in the figure. If the...

...Newton's laws of motion
Newton's laws of motion are three physical laws that form the basis for classical mechanics. They describe the relationship between the forces acting on a body and its motion due to those forces. They have been expressed in several different ways over nearly three centuries and can be summarized as follows:
1. First law: The velocity of a body (a state of rest or of uniform motion in a straight line) remains constant unless the body is compelled to change that state by external forces acted upon it.
2. Second law: The acceleration a of a body is parallel and directly proportional to the net force F acting on the body, is in the direction of the net force, and is inversely proportional to the mass m of the body, i.e., F = ma.
3. Third law: The mutual forces of action and reaction between two bodies are equal, opposite and collinear.
The three laws of motion were first compiled by Sir Isaac Newton in his work Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica, first published in 1687, Newton used them to explain and investigate the motion of many physical objects and systems. For example, in the third volume of the text, Newton showed that these laws of motion, combined with his law...

...Isaac Newton
Sir Isaac Newton (25 December 1642 – 20 March 1727) was an English physicist and mathematician who is widely regarded as one of the most influential scientists of all time and as a key figure in the scientific revolution. His book Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica ("Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy"), first published in 1687, laid the foundations for most of classical mechanics. Newton also made seminal contributions to optics and shares credit with Gottfried Leibniz for the invention of the infinitesimal calculus.
Newton's laws of motion are three physical laws that together laid the foundation for classical mechanics. They describe the relationship between a body and theforces acting upon it, and its motion in response to said forces. They have been expressed in several different ways over nearly three centuries,[1] and can be summarized as follows:
1. First law: An object at rest remains at rest unless acted upon by a force. An object in motion remains in motion, and at a constant velocity, unless acted upon by a force. [2][3]
2. Second law: The acceleration of a body is directly proportional to, and in the same direction as, the net force acting on the body, and inversely proportional to its mass. Thus, F = ma, where F is the net force acting on the object, m is the...

...segments that all involve Newton’s 3 laws. Let’s go take a look at the first one.
As you just saw in this Polo segment, Newton’s first law is one of the reason this game exists, if you hit the ball with the polo sick the reason for the ball to continue in motion is because of Newton’s First Law, “An object in motion will remain in motion unless an external force acts upon it.” But the reasons behind the ball slowing down is because of the outside forces, those are acting on the ball, causing the ball to slow down.
Let’s go take a look at the next segment.
When driving a car, in this case NASCAR, but any car really, the acceleration of the car is proportional to the force exerted by the tires, and is inversely proportional to the mass of the car. This is because of Newton’s second law, “F=ma; acceleration is proportional to force and inversely proportional to the mass of the accelerated object.”
Let’s go take a look at one more video clip.
This guy here is dribbling a bowling ball just like a basketball, not quite sure what gave him the idea, but
It’s a perfect example of Newton’s third lav. For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction, so
Then the ball collides with the ground, the ground exerts a force on the ball propelling it back in to the air
When you dribble a bowling ball the ball collides with the floor, and then the floor exerts a force on the...

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