Neurotransmitters

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Neurotransmitters
Dr. C. George Boeree

Neurotransmitters are the chemicals which allow the transmission of signals from one neuron to the next across synapses. They are also found at the axon endings of motor neurons, where they stimulate the muscle fibers. And they and their close relatives are produced by some glands such as the pituitary and the adrenal glands. In this chapter, we will review some of the most significant neurotransmitters.

Acetylcholine
Acetylcholine was the first neurotransmitter to be discovered. It was isolated in 1921 by a German biologist named Otto Loewi, who would later win the Nobel Prize for his work. Acetylcholine has many functions: It is responsible for much of the stimulation of muscles, including the muscles of the gastro-intestinal system. It is also found in sensory neurons and in the autonomic nervous system, and has a part in scheduling REM (dream) sleep. The plant poisons curare and hemlock cause paralysis by blocking the acetylcholine receptor sites of muscle cells. The well-known poison botulin works by preventing the vesicles in the axon ending from releasing acetylcholine, causing paralysis. The botulin derivative botox is used by many people to temporarily eliminate wrinkles - a sad commentary on our times, I would say. On a more serious note, there is a link between acetylcholine and Alzheimer's disease: There is something on the order of a 90% loss of acetylcholine in the brains of people suffering from Alzheimer's, which is a major cause of senility. Norepinephrine

In 1946, a Swedish biologist by the name of Ulf von Euler discovered norepinephrine (formerly called noradrenalin). He also won a Nobel Prize. Norepinephrine is strongly associated with bringing our nervous systems into "high alert." It is prevalent in the sympathetic nervous system, and it increases our heart rate and our blood pressure. Our adrenal glands release it into the blood stream, along with its close relative epinephrine (aka...
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