Net Present Value and Business

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IGNOU MBA MS - 04 Solved Assignments July 2011
Course Code:MS - 04
Course Title: Accounting and Finance for Managers
Assignment Code:MS-04/SEM - I /2011
Coverage:All Blocks
Note: Answer all the questions and send them to the Coordinator of the Study Centre you are attached with.

1.Discuss and explain the relevance of the following accounting concepts a)Business entity
b)Money measurement
c)Continuity
d)Cost
e)Accrual
f)Conservatism
g)Materiality
h)Consistency
i)Periodicity

Solution: FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTS OF ACCOUNTING
Accounting is the language of business and it is used to communicate financial information. In order for that information to make sense, accounting is based on 12 fundamental concepts. These fundamental concepts then form the basis for all of the Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP). By using these concepts as the foundation, readers of financial statements and other accounting information do not need to make assumptions about what the numbers mean. For instance, the difference between reading that a truck has a value of $9000 on the balance sheet and understanding what that $9000 represents is huge. Can you turn around and sell the truck for $9000? If you had to buy the truck today, would you pay $9000? Or, perhaps the original purchase price of the truck was $9000. All of these assumptions lead to very different evaluations of the worth of that asset and how it contributes to the company’s financial situation. For this reason it is imperative to know and understand the eleven key concepts. a)Business equitity:

When starting or expanding a business, many owners wonder if they should form a business entity and, if so, which one they should use. There is a wide variety of information and "pitches" being made on the Internet regarding the benefits of certain entities versus others. When you cut through the flak, however, the primary reason for forming a business entity is to create protection from personal liability arising from your business activities. It is well established that up to eighty percent of businesses will fail in their first two years. Many of these businesses, and probably yours, carry a high level of personal risk for their owners. If you are not using the correct entity for your particular business, you are going to be personally liable if the business fails. Do you want to expose your home, car and other assets? How about the assets owned by your spouse or their paycheck from a regular job? Selecting the correct entity for your business prevents such nightmares from occurring. More importantly, you can sleep at night knowing that the worst thing that can happen is losing your investment in the business, not your home.

Business Structures
There are a number of business structure options that exist in the modern corporate world. Following is a short explanation of the most common business structures. Corporations
Corporations come in two basic forms, a "C" corporation and an "S" corporation. There are a variety of differences, but the central one is a tax issue. Briefly put, "C" corporations are taxed on their revenues and you are then taxed separately on any money you take out of the corporation. An "S" corporation "passes through" all taxes to the shareholders with the information being reported on your personal tax returns. Regardless of the tax classification, a corporation is considered an independent entity from a legal standpoint. This independent status acts as a shield between the activities of the business and your personal assets. As a practical example, Kmart recently filed bankruptcy. The individual shareholders were not required to file bankruptcy and lost nothing more than their investment in the stock of the company. Forming and using a corporation for your business activities will have the same effect, to wit, your personal assets will not be wiped out if the business fails. Limited Liability...
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