Slide 2 The Neoclassical Movement
During the late 18th and early 19th centuries in the Western Europe, several artistic style competed for the primacy. Paris and Rome has become the centers of Western art world. Since the king at that time is Louis XIV, who has a classic flavor, the Neoclassicism arose out of several artistic styles.
Neoclassictism is a revival of the ancient styles and spirit inspired directly from the classical period.
There are 4 major styles in the Neoclassicism, which are:
1. It major depicts the heroic subject matters.
2. It is in formal clarity (their forms are very formal and clear) 3. It is in the impression of stability and solidity.
4. It is against the decorative Rococo style.
Slide 3 Jacques Louis David – Oath of Horatii
The leading painter of this period is Jacques-Louis David.
He has three representative paintings. They are “Oath of the Horatii”, “Death of Marat”, and “Death of Socrates”
The “Oath of the Horatii” Illustrates an event from Roman tradition in which honor and self-sacrifice prevailed. The three brothers are willing to sacrifice their lives for the good of Rome, and their father shown his respect with holding the swards for them.
Slide 4 Jacques Louis David – Death of Marat
The “Death of Marat” shows Marat, a Jacobin leader, was assassinated by the conservative group and was wound in the bathtub. David expresses the connection with Christian image of the dead Christ. It represents intellectual and political enlightenment.
Slide 4 Jacques Louis David – Death of Socrates
The” Death of Socrates” shows that Socrates was accused of denying the gods and corrupting the young through this teachings, Socrates was offered being sentenced to death by drinking hemlock. This painting is perhaps David’s most perfect Neoclassical statement.
Slide 6 Jacques Louis David - Napoleon at Saint Bernard Pass
David worked for Napoleon since 1799. His work “Napoleon at Saint Bernard Pass of 1800” depicts Napoleon crossing the Alps, by which he expressed his respect and appreciation to this general, who became an emperor in 1804.
Slide 7 More artist of Neoclasscism:
3 more artists in the period of Neoclassicism needs to be mentioned. 1. Marie-Guillemine Benoist - Portrait of a Negress
2. Antonio Ganova - Paolina Borghese as Venus Victrix 3. Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres - Napoleon Enthroned, Grande Odalisque
Slide 8 Development in America – Thomas Jefferson
The American revolution starts in 1776, which is 13 years earlier than the French revolution. Thomas Jefferson was an American founding father and a principle author of the United States Declaration of Independence. In this period in America, Thomas Jefferson is the most important people to embody the principle of Neoclassicism in the new land.
Slide 9 Thomas Jefferson’s Architechture:
He built the “State Capital building in Richmond”, when he was the governor of the Virginia state, which was inspired by the ” Temple of Portunus, late 2nd Century, BC”.
He also founded the “University of Virginia”, which was inspired by the “Pantheon in Rome, 117-125 AD” (萬神殿).
Slide 10 John Thrumbull’s Declaration of Independence
John Thrumbull was commissioned by the President James Madison to paint four pictures illustrating American Independence. They are displayed in the rotunda of the Capital building in Washington DC. The most important one out of 4 is “Declaration of Independence”.
Slide 11. Horatio Greenough’s George Washington Statue:
To celebrate the 100 year old birthday of George Washington, Congress commissioned Greenough who lives in Italy to create a statue to be displayed in the Capital Rotunda.
He created the sculpture for George Washington with a Romatic quality and Neoclassical style. The...