Natural Philosophy in Islam

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This is the awakening of a new era in natural philosophy supported in the Islamic empire that affects social structures, cultures and attitude towards learning. One may ask, how do the features of my society explain its achievements in natural philosophy? And, how did Al-Kindi and Averroes change the course of history in natural philosophy? While it seems like the days of enlightenment in natural philosophy have slowed as a result of upheaval in kingdoms because of warfare and economic collapses in Europe and the Middle-East. However, circumstances are less severe in Islamic empire that now stretches from North Africa and Spain to India. In the discussion of natural philosophy credit goes to the influential works of Aristotle and Plato, the great Greek philosophers because they had laid the current foundations of natural philosophy. Al-Kindi and Averroes had spent countless time reflecting on the philosophies and theories of Aristotle. Al-Kindi is a prominent natural philosopher living in the heart of Islamic empire in Baghdad, Iraq. His influence and hard work can be considered the roots of natural philosophy in Baghdad, Iraq. He has also dedicated himself to historical studies (Linderberg, p. 176) states “Al-Kindi conceived his obligation to be the completion, correction, and communication of this body of ancient learning”. Al-Kindi is also interested in optics and authored a famous book “De aspectibus” (Ede & Cormack, p. 87). Another notable figure in natural philosophy is Averroes living in Spain. He spends countless time reflecting on the science and philosophies of Aristotle and writes commentary based on his understanding of Aristotle’s work and expands on his unfinished works. He believes “Aristotle is the most important philosopher” (Lecture notes, January 10). There is variety of culture, but most influential is the teachings of the religion Islam. Although, it’s a relatively new empire in the world but the culture it promotes through its religion has...
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