eARTHQUAKE, TYPHOON, AND TORNADO
Kenneth W. Lingenfelter
Instructor Wael Hassian
Park University Internet Campus
A course paper presented to the School for Arts and Sciences and Distance Learning in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Baccalaureate
April 24, 2013
Earthquakes, typhoons, and tornadoes continue to devastate the United States and the entire plant through the activities of planet Earths natural movement and global warming elements. Earthquakes can happen at any time using the plate tectonics theory as individual faults where Earth ruptures and the two sides move past each other. (Abbott, 2012) They are defined as: the divergent or pull-apart motion at spreading centers cause rock to fail in tension; the slide-past motion occurs as the rigid plates fracture and move around the curved Earth; and the convergent motion that occur at subduction zones and in continent-continent collisions store immense amounts of energy that are released in Earth’s largest tectonic earthquakes. (Abbott, 2012) Typhoons (Hurricane) are huge tropical cyclones in which heat is built up over long periods of summer heat over seawater at least 80 degrees Fahrenheit, 200ft of ocean; the air is warm, humid, and unstable enough to sustain convection. (Abbott, 2012) The tropical disturbance is the development of low-pressure with the organization of thunderstorms with very weak surface winds. Tornadoes are normally descending from large thunderstorms and create the strongest winds of any weather phenomena. Tornadoes are extremely dangerous with most violent US tornadoes moving from southwest to northeast with winds speeds to register at 310 mph. (Abbott, 2012) In 2012; natural disasters cost the United States over $160 billion with 9500 people losing life. Hurricane Sandy is responsible for the majority of economic loss in 2012. (Munich Re, 2013) This essay will discuss elements relating to earthquakes, hurricanes, and tornadoes as they contributed to devastation around the world with three specific countries under review.
The Great Chilean Earthquake happened on May 22, 1960 at 19:11:14 UTC (Universal Time Coordinated) and if converted to Chile Standard Time, the Earthquake approximately occurred at 7:11pm. It also happens to be the largest earthquake noted in the 20th century. The earthquake occurred about 100 miles off the coast of southern Chile. It was characterized as an 8.6M level earthquake at the time, but in recent years, it was re-estimated to actually a higher magnitude at 9.5M. The epicenter of the Earthquake was 60 meters beneath the ocean floor, located at 39.5S and 74.5W with a focal depth of 33m. (Lander, 1989) I always thought that Chile and South America as a whole, was a tropical place located moderately above sea level and that it was known for its highly populated and urbanized city, Santiago. Therefore, after doing some research and learning that a major Earthquake occurred here a mere 60 years ago made me curious. I started to wonder what precautions Chile is taking to make sure that if another hazard does strike again they are prepared. Alternatively, what type of warning system the country has in place to make sure its citizens are aware? Once I started to ask myself these questions, I knew that I wanted to dig deeper into the topic of The Great Chilean Earthquake and find out what made it so great.
The massive earthquake affected multiple areas and multiple countries with a tremendous amount of economic cost and loses of life. In Chile, Valdivia and Puerto Montt affected the most due to the fact these cities of Chile were the closest to the epicenter. The majority of the buildings in these areas were demolished from the energy of the aftermath of the earthquake. The largest source of energy was established through the tsunami in which occurred due to the effects of the initial earthquake. The tsunami...