Several organizations were formed in India before the birth of Indian National Congress. In 1837 Landholders' Society was formed to safeguard the interests of the zamindars.
The British India Association was formed in 1851. Its leading members were Debendranath Tagore, Prasanna Kumar Tagore and Radhakanta Dev. Its aim was to present the demands of the Indians before the British Parliament. Dadabhai Naoroji established the East Indian Association in 1866 at London. Its main aim was to draw the attention of the British Public for the welfare of India. Its branches were opened in Bombay and Madras.
Mahadev Gavin Ranade established the Poona Sarvajanik Sabha in 1867 which aimed at social reforms and national awakening in Maharashtra.
In 1875, Sisal Kumar Ghosh established the Indian League. It continued to work in creating the political and national awakening among the Indians. In 1876, S. N. Banerjee with A. M. Bose established the Indian Association to make people aware about the British atrocities and inflame nationalism. It agitated against ICS (Indian Civil Service) which was being held at London, The members of this Association demanded that the civil service examination should be simultaneously held at London and India.
The Association also launched agitation against the Vernacular Press Act of 1878 implemented by Lord Lytton. It also demanded modification in the Arms Act, reform in police administration, and separation of judiciary from the executive and so on and so forth.
The AIigarh Movement had bought consciousness among the Muslims. In 1863, Abdul Latin established the Mohammedan Literary Society in Calcutta. In 1878, the National Mohammedan Association was formed. The Britishers tried to woo the Muslims thereby taking them to the side of their own and to play the policy 'divide and rule'.
The leaders of this Association demanded employment of the Muslims in...