Recently, we have witnessed the evolution of the information age and modern technology. Everything around us becomes computerized and automated. Wants of people had greatly changed and become more complicated than before. For example, in the past, the only man‟s need was to have a simple building to shelter him and protect his family from the environment. But today, the man‟s want is to have a complicated structural building supported with air conditioning systems, lighting systems, and electromechanical systems. And all of these systems are accompanied with some problems that can be summarized in three points; highly required energy problems, environmental problems and high costs. By time and with the great revolution in modern technology and minimization processes, these problems disappear gradually with the appearance of new modern technologies and leading these technologies is nanotechnology and its applications on buildings.
Accordingly, there is no doubt that nanotechnology is going to make a revolution for architecture industry. The future success of this technology depends on the development of different items concerning energy saving technology and enhancing the properties of building materials that achieve human comfort.
This report is composed entirely of five main sections. The first section will help readers to know more about some definitions to be aware of the new terminologies used in this field of study. Moreover, it will support them with a sufficient knowledge of background history of
nanotechnology and its development throughout the years. The second section will discuss the materials and its new properties as it‟s the most influenced part in architecture. The third section will talk about new techniques of saving energy in architecture and its importance. The forth section will show the impact of nanotechnology on architectural designs as a result of the great evolution in terms of materials and energy savings. Finally, the fifth section will be the conclusion that includes our expectations and suggestions for the future architecture all around the world and hoping that nano architecture to be applied in Egypt. Here is a diagram to clearly describe how we thought of classifying the report‟s sections.
Changed the way of thinking Generating new forms
Implementation in buildings Nano materials New energy techniques
Fig. 1.1. shows our point of view in classifying the report sections.
2. Background information
Nanotechnology is an area of science that deals with manipulation of materials on scale of nanometers. “This technology uses a basic unit of measure called a nanometer which is derived from the Greek word “dwarf”, nano which indicates a billionth part (10-9)”(ElSamny ,2010). The size of nano particles is really important because at a specific size 10-9, properties of materials become affected. Changes that happen in properties vary between materials. Nanoscience is somehow similar to nanotechnology; it refers to the study of objects that are very small and are in range of ten to hundred nanometers. Nanoparticles are the first generation products of nanotechnology. They are extremely tiny particles that measure few nanometers; they consist of an atom or thousand of atoms.
2.1. History of Nanotechnology
Nanotechnology is neither a new technology nor a new science; it is just development of sciences and technologies over many years. Nanomaterials have been present for centuries. Scientific discussion started on 1959 by the physicist Richard Feynman.(ElSamny,2010) Richard did not name this technology nanotechnology from the beginning; he only discussed the possibilities of a new type of science at very small scale. The first observations and size measurements of Nanoparticles were made during the first decade of the 20th century. Nanometer, which is the beginning of the history of nanotechnology, was discovered in 1960.