Nano Chemistry

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  • Topic: Nanotechnology, Chemistry, Nanomaterials
  • Pages : 5 (1327 words )
  • Download(s) : 144
  • Published : January 23, 2013
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1.1    Definition

Nanochemistry is concerned with generating and altering chemical systems, which develop special and often new effects as a result of the laws of the nanoworld. The bases for these are chemically active nanometric units such as supramolecules or nanocrystals. Nanochemistry looks set to make a great deal of progress for a large number of industry sectors. Nanotechnology exists in the realm where many scientific disciplines meet. Achievements in physics are getting progressively smaller – from valves to electronics, down to microelectronics and quantum computing. It mirrors the downsizing in focus in the biological sciences, from cells to genomics. Conversely, achievements in chemistry have been converging into the nanometre range from below – from atoms and molecules to supramolecular chemistry. Nanochemisty focuses on the unique properties of materials in the 1–100 nm scale. The physical, chemical, electrical, optical and magnetic properties of these materialsare all significantly different from both the properties of the individual building blocks (individual atoms or molecules), and also from the bulk materials.Nanochemistry is a truly multidisciplinary field, forming a bridge between nanotechnology and biotechnology, spanning the physical and life sciences. The Nanochemistry Research Institute (NRI) at Curtin carries out world-class research to provide innovative solutions to -    energy and resources

-    materials and manufacturing
-    electronics
-    agricultural
-    environmental management, and
-    health and medical industries

Nanochemistry applications in the materials, resources and energy sectors range from the design of crystalline catalysts and the control of crystal size, morphology, phase and purity, to the design and use of additives to control crystallization and inhibit scale formation. In the biological field, control of chemistry at the supramolecular level can lead to the development of a wide variety of new and improved biomaterials, such as artificial bones and tissues, as well as new pharmaceuticals and improved methods of drug delivery.1

ENGINEERING, SCIENCE
‘‘We are like dwarfs on the shoulders of giants, so that we can see more than they.’’  Bernard of Chartres, 12th century with nanoscience being the discipline concerned with making, manipulating and imaging materials having at least one spatial dimension in the size range 1–1000 nm and nanotechnology being a device or machine, product or process, based upon individual or multiple integrated nanoscale components, then what is nanochemistry? In its broadest terms, the de.ning feature of nanochemistry is the utilization of synthetic chemistry to make nanoscale building blocks of different size and shape, composition and surface structure, charge and functionality. These building blocks may be useful in their own right. Or in a self-assembly construction process, spontaneous, directed by templates or guided by chemically or lithographically de.ned surface patterns, they may form architectures that perform an intelligent function and portend a particular use.2

1.2    Objective of nanochemistry

-    Creating nanoparticles
-    Allowing properties of nanosystems to evolve, manipulating and controlling  them -    Encapsulating and transporting materials (e.g. deodorant with nanodroplets)4

1.3    Nanochemistry used in: -

-     Cosmetics, e.g. sunscreen, toothpaste, skincare products -    Sanitary ware
-    Built-in ovens and baking trays
-    Gas-tight packaging
-    Screens, photographic films
-    Separating technology for waste water treatment and food production -    Catalysers for chemical reactions
-    Exhaust purification5   

It is also used in formation of :-

-    Commercialization of nanochemicals
-    Nanooxides of precious, ferromagnetic, rare metals (Ti, Zr etc.)     Nanopolymers and membranes
-    Nanomaterials (cement, fertilizers)
-    Nanopowders in chemical applications...
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