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Topics: Education, Educational psychology, Special education Pages: 28 (7996 words) Published: February 4, 2013
Overcoming Exclusion through Inclusive Approaches in Education A CHALLENGE


Conceptual Paper

Overcoming Exclusion through Inclusive Approaches in Education A CHALLENGE Conceptual Paper


United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization

UNESCO wishes to acknowledge the great contribution of PROF. TONY BOOTH for the conceptual development of this paper. We also wish to thank DR JAMES LYNCH for his help in earlier drafts of the paper, as well as all the colleagues, researchers and practitioners who have provided their feedback and insight at various stages of this paper.

Page 3


Defining Inclusive Education
Page 7


The Scene of Exclusion
Page 9


Overcoming Exclusion through Inclusive Approaches in Education Page 13


© UNESCO 2003 Section for Early Childhood and Inclusive Education Basic Education Division 7, place de Fontenoy, 75352 PARIS 07 SP, France Phone: 33-(0)1 45 68 10 00 Fax: 33-(0)1 45 68 56 27 Electronic Addresses: Design : J. Gébara CRÉAGRAPHIE, Paris 01 56582844, creag @ Photo : Olav A. Saltbones © UNESCO ED-2003/WS/63

Some Steps Forward
Page 21

Conclusion: Inclusive Education and Education for All
Page 29 References and further reading Page 31




Marginalisation a threat to society
One of the greatest problems facing the world today is the growing number of persons who are excluded from meaningful participation in the economic, social, political and cultural life of their communities. Such a society is neither efficient nor safe. The Jomtien World Conference on Education for All (1990) set the goal of Education for All. UNESCO, along with other UN agencies, and a number of international and national non-governmental organisations, has been working towards achieving this goal - adding to the efforts made at the country level. Despite encouraging developments there are still an estimated 113 million primary school age children not attending school (International Consultative Forum on Education for All, 2000). 90% of them live in low and lower middle income countries, and over 80 million of these children live in Africa. Of those who do enrol in primary school, large numbers drop out before completing their primary education. INTRODUCTION


Current strategies insufficient
It is recognised that current strategies and programmes have largely been insufficient or inappropriate with regard to needs of children and youth who are vulnerable to marginalisation and exclusion. Where programmes targeting various marginalized and excluded groups do exist, they have functioned outside the mainstream – special programmes, specialized institutions, and specialist educators. Notwithstanding the best intentions, too often the result has been exclusion:

‘second-rate’ educational opportunities that do not guarantee the possibility to continue studies, or differentiation becoming a form of discrimination, leaving children with various needs outside the mainstream of school life and later, as adults, outside community social and cultural life in general (UNESCO, 1999a). The urgency to address the needs of learners who are vulnerable to marginalisation and exclusion through responsive educational opportunities was also pointed out in the Dakar World Education Forum in April 2000: Overcoming Exclusion through Inclusive Approaches in Education A &ACHALLENGE VISION Conceptual Paper

The that the ❝All askey challenge is to ensurereflected inbroad vision of Education for an inclusive concept is national government

and funding agency policies. Education for All … must take account of the need of the poor and the most disadvantaged, including working children, remote rural dwellers and nomads, and ethnic and linguistic minorities, children, young people and adults affected by conflict, HIV/AIDS, hunger and poor...
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