In this laboratory experiment a synthesis was performed through several separate steps. The purpose of the experiment was to synthesize tetraphenylcyclopentadienone from benzaldehyde and to run reactions on carbonyl containing compounds. There was a total of three steps that led up to the synthesis of the final product, tetraphenylcyclopentadienone. The first step of the experiment was the condensation of benzaldehyde to yield benzoin. Thiamine catalyst along with water and ethanol were added to the benzaldehyde, then NaOH was added until the solution turned yellow. After recrystallization, the product was benzoin. Step two was the oxidation of benzoin to benzil. Nitric acid was added to the benzoin and heated, this was followed by recrystallization to yield the benzil. In step three the benzil from step two was to be synthesized tetraphenylcyclopentadienone. The benzil and 1,3-diphenylacetone were mixed with ethanol. After heating this, ethanoic KOH was added and the solution was left to reflux. The crystals were washed and collected. This ended the multistep synthesis. The final product was not successfully synthesized due to sources of error during procedures. Therefore, a percent yield was unable to be found. The theoretical melting point for tetraphenylcyclopentadienone 218-220 degrees Celsius.
The first step of this experiment was a condensation reaction. Thiamine was the catalyst in this reaction. The thiazolium ion attacks the benzaldehyde. Thiazolium is made in situ by adding base, which was NaOH in this reaction. The thiazolium ion attacks the carbonyl of the benzaldehyde, this served as a nucleophile. This created a negative charge on the benzaldehyde, which attracted another molecule of benzaldehyde. The thiamine leaves the compound and a double oxygen bond is made, leaving this new compound, benzoin, neutral.
The second step was an oxidation reaction. Benzoin was oxidated to benzil. Nitric acid was the oxidating agent and it attacked the -COH bond on the benzoin, making a hydrogen leave the molecule. The molecule was then positively charged. The NHO2 then left the molecule and benzil was created. Benzil is symmetrical with two double oxygen bonds.
The final step includes a double aldol condensation reaction. 1,3-diphenylacetone is formed as an enolate anion and it attacked the benzil. This was the first condensation. Dehydration followed. This was the second condensation of the double aldol condensation. The result was the conjugated product of tetraphenylcyclopentadienone. Experimental Section:
Benzoin: Benzoin was synthesized by the condensation of benzaldehyde. 1.485 g of benzaldehyde was placed in a round bottom flask with a magnetic stirrer. In a separate vial 225 mg of thiamine catalyst was dissolve in 0.67 ml water and 2.0 ml 95% ethanol. The benzaldehyde and thiamine solution were mixed. 3 M NaOH was added by drops and stirring until the solution turned a bright yellow color. When the solution was yellow, the flask was topped and placed in the locker to sit until the next laboratory period so the solution could react. After sitting over 24 hours, the solution in the flask had crystallized with wet, yellow crystals. The crystals were cooled in ice water to completely crystallize the product. The crystals were then filtered by using a Hirsch funnel. The crystals were washed three times with a 2 ml solution of half ice cold 50% ethanol and half water. When the crystals were washed, the yellow color of the crystals washed off, making the crystals white. The yellow color was the unreacted benzaldehyde. After the crystals were completely dry, the crystals were collected to be weighed and the melting point and IR spectrum were found. Benzil: The benzoin from the first step was put into a round bottom flask with a magnetic stirrer. 1 mL of nitric acid was added...