Chapter 1 Test A
MULTIPLE CHOICE INSTRUCTIONS: The following selections relate to distinguishing arguments from nonarguments and identifying conclusions. Select the best answer for each. 1. There appears to be a growing happiness gap between men and women. Women today are working more and relaxing less, while men are working less and relaxing more. Forty years ago a typical woman spent 40 minutes more per week than the typical man performing an activity considered unpleasant. Today, with men working less, the gap is 90 minutes and growing. a. Argument; conclusion: Today ... the gap is 90 minutes and growing. b. Nonargument. c. Argument; conclusion: Forty years ago ... an activity considered unpleasant. d. Argument; conclusion: There appears to be ... between men and women. e. Argument; conclusion: Women today are working more and relaxing less. ANS: D PTS: 2
2. Lead is toxic, but do you know why? Lead is toxic mainly because it preferentially replaces other metals in biochemical reactions. In so doing it interferes with the proteins that regulate blood pressure (which can cause development delays in children and high blood pressure in adults), heme production (which can lead to anemia), and sperm production. Lead also displaces calcium in the reactions that transmit electrical impulses in the brain, which diminishes the ability to think and recall information. Anne Marie Helmstine, "Your Guide to Chemistry" a. Argument; conclusion: It interferes with the proteins ... and sperm production. b. Argument; conclusion: Lead is toxic. c. Nonargument. d. Argument; conclusion: It preferentially replaces other metals in biochemical reactions. e. Argument; conclusion: Lead also displaces calcium ... recall information. ANS: C PTS: 2
3. Aristotle focused on clarifying the concept of virtue itself. He argued that it was virtuous to choose the proper amount of emotion and/or action called for in a particular situation and that extremes of emotion and action were vices. In all communities there are some men of practical wisdom who have the capacity to judge wisely. Aristotle argued that they have the capacity to follow the "right rule" whatever the situation. David Cooper, Value Pluralism and Ethical Choice a. Argument; conclusion: In all communities ... capacity to judge wisely. b. Argument; conclusion: Aristotle focused on clarifying the concept of virtue itself. c. Argument; conclusion: They have the capacity to follow ... the situation. d. Argument; conclusion: He argued that it was virtuous ... were vices e. Nonargument. ANS: E PTS: 2
4. Illegal immigrants pay local sales taxes, and many of them also pay state, local, and federal income tax and Social Security tax. They also purchase items from local merchants, increasing the amount these merchants pay in taxes. In addition, they work for low salaries, which increases the earnings of their employers and the amount of taxes these employers pay. Thus, it is not correct to say that illegal immigrants contribute nothing to the communities in which they live. a. Argument; conclusion: It is not correct to say ... communities in which they live.
b. c. d. e.
Argument; conclusion: They work for low salaries ... these employers pay. Argument; conclusion: Illegal immigrants pay ... Social Security tax. Argument; conclusion: They also purchase items ... pay in taxes. Nonargument. PTS: 2
5. Numerous studies have indicated that women of color, black women in particular, are over-arrested, over-indicted, and over-sentenced. African-American women are seven times more likely to be arrested for prostitution than women of other ethnic groups. Black women have received significantly longer sentences for crimes against property and served longer periods in prison. For both murder and drug offenses, Euroamerican women ended up serving one-third less time for the same offenses than black women. Nancy Kurshan, "Women and...