This essay will focus on the importance of motivation as a concept in relation to management and organisational behaviour, moreover, this essay will state and identity some types of motivation, and analysis of the differences between them. Furthermore, the essay will review some theories of motivation, besides, how those theorists think, relating to management and organisational behaviour. In addition this essay will show the difference between motivation and incentive.
Furthermore, This essay will offer some recommendations on how motivation theories can help managers to manage employees well and how management can use these motivation theories in order to get a competitive advantage. Moreover, the essay will explain the deference between positive motivation and negative motivation and what is the best way that can be used for employees in the short and long term.
Motivation in psychology is the situation that raises behaviour in certain circumstances and pursued until it is finished to a very specific, such as student nerd lessons motivated by the need to succeed and hunger is a motivation that moves a need to eat.
There are different types of motivation, firstly, motivation can be a biological case such as hunger or the wish to succeed, the second sort of motivation might be a temporary situation such as anger or a continual case such as curiosity, in addition, motivation could be an innate case which come through human genetics.
Furthermore, there are a lot of divisions of motivation, the most two types of motivation are the purpose of the motivation which is divided into two main types, firstly, positive motivation which are the influences that affect the person's behaviour by satisfying their needs and aims to raise the efficiency and productivity and improve performance, which encourages the individual to behave with a consent and to choose the behaviour that Leaders want.
Secondly, negative motivations which are the influences that seek to influence the behaviour of employees, in a negative and bad way, through the entrance of punishment and deterrence, intimidation and discipline, such as sanctions material or a deduction from wages, deprivation of premium or denial of promotion, as the result, manager who depends mostly on the way of discipline and punishment known as a negative leader, in contrast, manager who depends entirely on the style of appreciation and encouragement and reward is described as a positive leader.
As the result, resulted in studies and tests conducted in the positive motivation and negative motivation, that negative motivation might provide a higher productivity in a short term, however, this way decline in the morale of employees and reflected behavioural symptoms such as high rate of absenteeism and a large number of complaints and grievances as the result decline in productivity in the long term. This means that leaders who rely on negative incentive get a quick response, but temporary and limited.
In contrast, generally a positive motivation provides a higher moral spirit and less productive in the short term, however, in the long term productivity increases significantly and generally this was because of a positive motivation.(Fahmy -1976).
There are a lot of theories of motivation that studied the impact of motivation, firstly the traditional –classical theory, this theory has considered that the employee is an economic man in order to increase his own income only, and thus, increase the productivity related to a good system of motivation incomes.( Frederick Taylor).
Secondly , the behaviour change theory - behaviour modification, this theory depends on behaviour, if the result of behaviour is good, the person will repeat it, however, if the behaviour is unpleasant, the person will stop it. Moreover, the level of ambition theory which is the person's goal and his ambition might be the main...