The motivation is very important in our lives. A few theories are attempted to explain why motivation is important .It is a stronger need and stronger impulsion. For example , a man has not eaten, he feel hungry and as a response he eat .And this behaviour are explain for motivation, the motive are prompted him to eat food. In management circle, the motivation can help people to overcome all possible obstacles and achieve our personal and professional goal. Dickson (1973) argue that the motivated of the employees are not entirely by money and their behaviour is linked their attitudes. According by Bedeian (1993) in Hawthorne study, the employee needs and motivation are become to the primary focus of managers. It can improve the relationship between of people and management. Terpstra (1979) believe that the Hawthorne studies can helps us to understanding what motivated employees.
In motivation can be divided into two theories that are content theory and process theory. The emphasis of content theory is natural need and motivation on individual at work, its change with time. Another theory's emphasis is actual process that can influence human behaviour and actions. Maslow’s hierarchy of needs model, Alderfer’s modified need hierarchy model, Herzberg’s two factory theory and McClelland‘s achievement motivation theory, this four theories are under for content theory. On the other hand, the process theory can be divided into equity theory, expectancy theory and goal theory.
In content theory, the Maslow hierarchy theory can be categorized into five levels; there are physiological, safety, love, esteem and self-actualisation. In Maslow hierarchy theory, when the lower level needs had to be satisfied they will start to reconsider what they need for the next higher level. And these five levels can be influence attitude and work place. Alderfer’s modified need hierarchy theory is adaptation by Maslow theory. The Alderfer’s theory is about 3 needs. That is existence, relatedness and growth. And these three needs can influence human behaviour at one time. In Herzberg’s theory can be divided into motivators and hygiene factors. These factors are related to work context. Because Herzherg believe that the motivators are produce job satisfaction and the hygiene factors are produce job dissatisfaction. The last theory is McClelland‘s achievement motivation theory that is developed by David McClelland. The McClelland's is cover by Maslow theory. This theory people are acquire needs through their life experiences.
On the other hand, the equity theory is focus on individuals perceives their reward or pay compared to what others are receiving. This theory can get two results, that are equity and inequity. The perceived equity individual is satisfied and do not change behaviour. And the perceived inequity individual is the individual feel discomfort and act to eliminate the inequity. The expectancy theory is proposes that a person will decide to behave, because they are motivated to select a specific behaviour over other behaviour due to what they expect the result of that selected behaviour will be. And the core of this theory is the cognitive process of how an individual processes the different motivational elements. The last theory of process theory is goal theory. That is properly set and well-managed goals can be highly motivating.
A few strategies can motivate people in work. These strategies can effectively to influence the attitude and efficiency of employees. The first strategies are positive work environment. The relations of work environment and employees are closed. Good work environment can raising the productive of employees. If employees have a positive environment that allows them motivated to work hard and achieve their goals. The second strategies are social gathering. The social gathering can promote the team spirit and improve the relationship between employees. For example,...