Monopoly

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A profit maximiser increases output until MC=MR at Q1. The intersection of MC with MR gives the profit maximising level of output. The intersection of MC with MR gives the profit maximising level of output. To find the market price one must project up from Q1 to the demand curve and across the vertical price axis, P1. Consumers are willing to pay P1 for Q1. Unit costs are only P2 so the firm is making an abnormal profit of (P1-P2)*Q1

The four key characteristics of monopoly are: (1) a single firm selling all output in a market, (2) a unique product, (3) restrictions on entry into and exit out of the industry, and more often than not (4) specialized information about production techniques unavailable to other potential producers. These four characteristics mean that a monopoly has extensive (boarding on complete) market control. Monopoly controls the selling side of the market. If anyone seeks to acquire the production sold by the monopoly, then they must buy from the monopoly. This means that the demand curve facing the monopoly is the market demand curve. They are one and the same. The characteristics of monopoly are in direct contrast to those of perfect competition. A perfectly competitive industry has a large number of relatively small firms, each producing identical products. Firms can freely move into and out of the industry and share the same information about prices and production techniques.

Single supplier:

The essence of a monopoly is a market controlled by a single seller. The most important aspect of being a single seller is that the monopoly seller IS the market. The market demand for a good IS the demand for the output produced by the monopoly. This makes monopoly a price maker, rather than a price taker.

Unique Product:

To be the only seller of a product, however, a monopoly must have a unique product. There are no close substitutes.
A monopoly is an ONLY seller of a UNIQUE product.

Barriers to Entry and...
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