Mode of Production
The milieu and environment of art.
In a broad sense, we study Philippine art as produced within the particular period of history. For example, the 19th century or the Marcos regime. In a specific sense, we study Philippine art as produced by a particular social group, usually having fine arts background or specific cultural community which has preserved is artistic traditions from pre-colonial times. Art is produced under different conditions even within the same society during the same time. Urban middle class artist usually obtained their training in fine arts schools. When they finish a series or a body of works, they usually arrange for an exhibit in commercial gallery where their works are made available for public viewing.
Conditions are quite different for a traditional artist, such as weaver, a potter, a woodcarver, or basket maker. They were produced to meet a local community ritual and functional needs. They were circulated within the members of the community. It is only in the past few decades that local entrepreneurs and tourist agents realized their commercial value and brought these local artistic production to the urban areas. While the producers sell the works at relatively low price, they are sold much higher in the urban malls. Victims of neglect and prejudice, they are caught up in the daily struggle for survival and are continually threatened with eviction from their ancestral lands by speculators, subdivision developers and industrial capitalists who want to build factories usually highly polluting to the immediate environment. As for the producers of folk art, who are mostly farmers and fisher folk in the countryside, much of their work is seasonal: town fiestas and agricultural cycles.