Midterm Test Review: History

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AP US History & IBH1 2012-2013: Midterm Test Review

Know the following vocab:

Early Settlement:

Halfway Covenant- A Puritan church document; In 1662, the Halfway Covenant allowed partial membership rights to persons not yet converted into the Puritan church; It lessened the difference between the "elect" members of the church from the regular members; Women soon made up a larger portion of Puritan congregations.

Massachusetts Bay Company-One of the first settlements in New England; established in 1630 and became a major Puritan colony. Became the state of Massachusetts, originally where Boston is located. It was a major trading center, and absorbed the Plymouth community

Mayflower Compact- A contract made by the voyagers on the Mayflower agreeing that they would form a simple government where majority ruled.

Plymouth Colony- Plymouth was the first permanent European settlement in New England, founded by the Pilgrim Fathers aboard the Mayflower.

Puritanism-Belief that Catholic church was completely corrupt and wanted to reform even more. Supported Church of England

Road to Revolution:
Boston Massacre-a riot in Boston (March 5, 1770) arising from the resentment of Boston colonists toward British troops quartered in the city, in which the troops fired on the mob and killed several persons.

Declaratory Act-In 1766, the English Parliament repealed the Stamp Act and at the same time signed the Declaratory Act. This document stated that Parliament had the right "to bind" the colonies "in all cases whatsoever." It is important in history because it stopped the violence and rebellions against the tax on stamps. Also, it restarted trade with England, which had temporarily stopped as a defiant reaction to the Stamp Act.

Proclamation of 1763-The Proclamation of 1763 was an English law enacted after gaining territory from the French at the end of the French and Indian War. It forbade the colonists from settling beyond the Appalachian Mountains. The Colonists were no longer proud to be British citizens after the enactment. The Proclamation of 1763 caused the first major revolt against the British.

Stamp Act- In 1765 Parliament passed the Stamp Act, requiring the colonists to pay for a stamp to go on many of the documents essential to their lives. These documents included deeds, mortgages, liquor licenses, playing cards, and almanacs. The colonists heartily objected to this direct tax and in protest petitioned the king, formed the Stamp Act Congress, and boycotted English imports. In 1766 Parliament repealed the Stamp Act, a major victory for colonists.

Virginia Resolves-These were statements made by Thomas Jefferson (Kentucky) and James Madison (Virginia) rebuking the Alien and Sedition Acts. This was the first expression of the doctrine of nullification. 

virtual representation-A bringing of an action on behalf of a party or parties unnamed, as in the case of a class action where a number of people have an interest similar to the named party, and upon whom the courtÂ’s judgment will be binding. It is often preferable to have a guardian ad litem appointed to protect the interests of the nonparties.

Revolutionary War:
Battle of Yorktown-The last battle of the Revolutionary War, fought in 1781 near the seacoast of Virginia. There the British general Lord Cornwallis surrendered his army to General George Washington.

Thomas Jefferson- Thomas Jefferson was a member of the House of Burgesses, wrote the Declaration of Independence, was ambassador to France, and was the President of the United States of America. He did all these things before, during, and after the Revolutionary war. With his Declaration of Independence he declared the colonies' freedom from England. While President, he bought the Louisiana Purchase and had Lewis and Clark to explore it. Under the executive branch of the new constitution, Thomas Jefferson was the Secretary of State. When Alexander Hamilton wanted to...
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