Microbiology for Allied Health

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BIO 162
Microbiology for Allied Health

D. Page Baluch

Microbiology
Many technical terms, names of cell structures are
formed from Latin or Greek roots
micro - very small; bio – life; ology – study

study of very small living organisms that cannot be
seen with unaided eyes
Microorganisms or microbes
They are virtually everywhere - ubiquitous

Types of Microorganisms
Bacteria

Fungus
Yeast & molds

Bacillus

E. coli

Algae

Archaebacteria

Diatom
Dead Sea salt pillar

Protozoa
Virus
Paramecium
HIV

1

Why study microbiology?
W e have trillions of living microbes in our bodies
– indigenous or normal microflora
3% known microbes are disease-causing
(pathogens)
Essential for life on planet e.g oxygen
production, nutrients recycling, food chain,
Industrial use e.g. bioremediation (decompose
industrial waste), genetic engineering (gene
transfer), food & beverage (bread, butter,
cheese, beer, wine), antibiotics (penicillin,
tetracycline)

Microbiology
Different specialties within microbiology
Bacteriology
Virology
Mycology
Phycology
Parasitology
Immunology

Applied microbiology – apply knowledge of
microbiology to different aspects of society,
medicine & industry.
Medical microbiology
Clinical microbiology

History of Microbiology
Oldest fossils of microbes – 3.5 billions years
old (compared to animal 630 millions years
old)
Earliest infectious disease was recorded in
3180 B.C. in Egypt (disease was also known
as pestilence)
Since microorganisms cannot be seen with
the naked eye, the development of
microbiology largely relies on the
development of microscopes

2

History of Microbiology
Major contributors

Robert Hooke - the first cell in cork

“Observation XVIII" of the
Observation
Micrographia by Hooke, 1665
Micrographia by Hooke

History of Microbiology
Major contributors

Robert Hooke - the first cell in cork
Anton van Leeuwenhoek - the first living microbe

“….very little animalcules….”
by Leeuwonhoek in Cornelis
Boutesteyn, Leyden, 1685

Early observations under primitive
microscopes

“Observation XVIII" of the
Observation
Micrographia by Hooke, 1665
Micrographia by Hooke

“….very little animalcules….”
by Leeuwonhoek in Cornelis
Boutesteyn, Leyden, 1685

3

History of Microbiology
Major contributors

Robert Hooke - the first cell in cork
Anton van Leeuwenhoek - the first living microbe
Edward Jenner - the first vaccine, 1796
Louis Pasteur
Pasteurization process
Disprove “Spontaneous Generation”
Germ Theory of Disease

Robert Koch
Germ Theory of Disease - Koch’s postulates

Pasteur Disproves “Spontaneous Generation”
Spontaneous generation - 400 B.C Greek myth formed the basis of this notion which states that lifeless substance could give rise to living organisms

The swan-neck flask experiment
• fermentable juice was placed in a flask, heated and sealed

sterile

What happened when:
1. flask remained sealed?
2. the end of the neck was nipped off and dust was trapped in the neck?
3. the flask was tipped to allow the sterile liquid to touch the contaminated walls and this liquid was then returned to the broth?

Germ Theory of Disease - Louis Pasteur, 1857

Wine and beer fermentation experiments

Grape juice
(naturally
contains
yeast)

Yeast killed
by heating
the juice

Cottom plug
prevents airborn
microbes, juice
fails to ferment

Yeast is
added back to
the juice

Juice is
fermented
into wine

Microorganisms (germs) are capable of causing
chemical change.
Can you think of some examples?

4

History of Microbiology
Major contributors

Robert Hooke - the first cell in cork
Anton van Leeuwenhoek - the first living microbe
Edward Jenner - the first vaccine
Louis Pasteur
Pasteurization process
Disprove “Spontaneous Generation”
Germ Theory of Disease

Robert Koch
Germ Theory of Disease - Koch’s postulates

Koch’s Postulates
The organism must...
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