Learning Objectives Go Over First Lecture
1-1List several ways in which microbes affect our lives.
1-2Recognize the system of scientific nomenclature that uses two names: a genus and a specific epithet.
1-3Differentiate the major characteristics of each group of microorganisms.
1-4List the three domains.
1-5Explain the importance of observations made by Hooke and van Leeuwenhoek.
1-6Compare spontaneous generation and biogenesis.
1-7Identify the contributions to microbiology made by Needham, Spallanzani, Virchow, and Pasteur.
1-8Explain how Pasteur’s work influenced Lister and Koch.
1-9Identify the importance of Koch’s postulates.
1-10Identify the importance of Jenner’s work.
1-11Identify the contributions to microbiology made by Ehrlich and Fleming.
1-12Define bacteriology, mycology, parasitology, immunology, and virology.
1-13Explain the importance of molecular genetics and molecular biology.
1-14List at least four beneficial activities of microorganisms.
1-15Name two examples of biotechnology that use recombinant DNA technology and two examples that do not.
1-16Define normal microbiota and resistance.
1-18Define emerging infectious disease.
Check Your Understanding
Describe some of the destructive and beneficial actions of microbes.
Distinguish a genus from a specific epithet.
Which groups of microbes are prokaryotes? Which are eukaryotes?
What are the three domains?
What is the cell theory?
What evidence supported spontaneous generation?
How was spontaneous generation disproved?
Summarize in your own words the germ theory of disease.
What is the importance of Koch’s postulates?
What is the significance of Jenner’s discovery?
What was Ehrlich’s “magic bullet”?
Define bacteriology, mycology, parasitology, immunology, and virology.
Differentiate microbial genetics from molecular biology.
Name two beneficial uses of bacteria.
Differentiate biotechnology from recombinant DNA technology.
Differentiate normal microbiota and infectious disease.
Why are biofilms important?
What factors contribute to the emergence of an infectious disease?
New in this Edition
•New information on biofilms, including a photo.
•Updated coverage of emerging infectious diseases.
•New section on antibiotic-resistant bacteria.
Microbes in Our Lives (p. 2)
1.Living things too small to be seen with the unaided eye are called microorganisms. 2.Microorganisms are important in maintaining Earth’s ecological balance. 3.Some microorganisms live in humans and other animals and are needed to maintain good health. 4.Some microorganisms are used to produce foods and chemicals. 5.Some microorganisms cause disease.
Naming and Classifying Microorganisms (pp. 2–6)
Nomenclature (p. 2)
1.In a nomenclature system designed by Carolus Linnaeus (1735), each living organism is assigned two names. 2.The two names consist of a genus and a specific epithet, both of which are underlined or italicized.
Types of Microorganisms (pp. 3–6)
Bacteria (pp. 3–4)
3.Bacteria are unicellular organisms. Because they have no nucleus, the cells are described as prokaryotic. 4.The three major basic shapes of bacteria are bacillus, coccus, and spiral. 5.Most bacteria have a peptidoglycan cell wall; they divide by binary fission, and they may possess flagella. 6.Bacteria can use a wide range of chemical substances for their nutrition.
Archaea (p. 4)
7.Archaea consist of prokaryotic cells; they lack peptidoglycan in their cell walls. 8.Archaea include methanogens, extreme halophiles, and extreme thermophiles.
Fungi (p. 4)
9.Fungi (mushrooms, molds, and yeasts) have eukaryotic cells (cells with a true nucleus). Most fungi are multicellular. 10.Fungi obtain nutrients by absorbing organic...