Memory Stages

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Psychology is known as the science of behavior and mental process. In Greek psychology has been define as a study that will talk about the soul where, the psyche and logos is both an academic and applied discipline that involving the scientific study of mental process and behavior. In other terms, psychologies also know as a study of the thought processes and behavior of humans and other animals in their interaction with the environment. Psychologists study processes such as perception, cognition, emotion and motivations, personality, abnormal behavior, and interpersonal relationships. Its also refers to the application of knowledge to various spheres of human activity, including issues related to daily life, such as family, education, work, and the treatment of mental health problem.

Memory of human was a part of the psychology study, Memory refers to the process that are used acquire, store, retain, and letter retrieve information. There are three major process involve in memory; encoding, storage and retrieval. In order to form new memories, information must be changed to usable form, which occurs through the process know as encoding. Once information has been successfully encoded, it must be stored in memory for later use. Much of this stored memory lies outside of our awareness most of the time, except when we actually need to use it. The retrieval process allows us to bring stored memories into conscious awareness. The interest of psychologists in how human memory works and how human brains can be improve have give the psychologists an inspirations to develop theories of memory using the computer as a model. These information processing theories of memory are just based on similarity of human brain operation and the computer. According to the stage theory of memory based on Atkinson & Shiffrin.1968; Baddeley, 1999, assume that humans have a three-stage memory that meets our need to store information for different lengths of time. The three stages are known as the sensory register, short-term memory, and long-term memory.

Sensory Register
The first stage of memory was the sensory register, defined as an exact image of each sensory experience is held briefly until it can be processed (Psychology an introduction, Benjamin B. Lahey, Ninth Edition). In this stage the sensory memory retains an exact copy of what it’s seen and or heard. The information that had been stored in this stage is not last long where it only can lasts for a few seconds.

“The copy of each sensory experience in the sensory registers long enough to locate and focus on relevant bits of information and transfer them into the next stage of memory. For visual information, this “snapshot” fades very quickly, probably lasting about one-quarter of a second in most case. For auditory information, a vivid image of what we hear is retained for about the same length of time, one-quarter of a second (Cowan, 1987).”

Short-term Memory (STM)
Second stage was short-terms memory which five to nine bits of information can be stored for brief periods of time (Psychology an introduction, Benjamin B. Lahey, Ninth Edition). The objective in this stage was to encode sensory register information into a form suitable for storage in long-term memory and also known as working memory, where the information we are currently aware of or thinking about. In Freudian psychology, this memory would be referred to as the conscious mind. Paying attention to sensory memories generates the information in short-term memory. Most of the information stored in working memory will be stored for approximately 20 to 30 seconds. While many of our short-term memories are quickly forgotten, attending to this information allows it to continue on the next stage, long-term memory.

Once the information is transferred into the short-term memory or STM, a variety of control processes may be applied; rehearsal and chunking are two important examples of these control processes....
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