Memory

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MEMORY- THE INTERFERENCE THEORY
FIZZA LAKHANI
INSTITUTE OF PROFESSIONAL PSYCHOLOGY, BAHRIA
UNIVERSITY, KARACHI.
BS-4

Abstract
The aim of this study was to observe the interference theory on different age groups. It was assumed that the recalling of 1st list will be affected by interference of another list, teenagers will recall more nonsense syllables than adults and also participants who performed experiments with distractions will have less correct responses than those who conducted without distractions. 136 participants, collected through convenience and snowball sampling were divided in 2 different conditions, experimental, in which 2nd list was introduced and control, in which no other list was used. Each condition had participants of both age groups; 14-19 and 20-25. 3 word lists of 12 nonsense syllables in each and an aperture were used in this study. Results were found out through percentages. Thus 1st and 3rd hypothesis was proved, while 2nd was disproved. Keywords: Interference, nonsense syllables, recall, memory

Our memories are usually more or less correct, and if they are not, we’d have a tough go of it through life. However, they are incorrect more often than we might not even think of and sometimes the consequences of incorrect memory are vast and dramatic. Thus, a moment thought convinces us that memory is the most critical yet fundamental process which pervades our lives. It is the most critical mental facility we possess with regard to our ability to operate as humans. We make almost all our decisions based on our memories of one sort or another. It’s not surprising, therefore, that memory is the focus and significance of researches, both in psychology and in biological sciences. Memory, then, is the process of maintaining information over time (Matlin, 2005). Psychologists, today, make three important distinctions related to memory. First, deals with the three stages of memory; encoding, storage and retrieval. Second deals with different memories for storing information for short and long periods. Third distinction is about, different memories being used to store different kinds of memories. Considering the first distinction, there are three main stages or memory; encoding, which is when, environmental information is translated into and stored as a meaningful entity. Second, is the storage stage, which deals with the maintenance of stored memory over the period of time. The third stage is known as retrieval, which is based on the stored experiences and representations. This stage deals with the attempt to pull information from the memory that was previously encoded and stored. Although, the process of encoding, storing and retrieving information are necessary for memory to operate successfully, they do not describe how information enters into memory. Many psychologists studying memory suggests that there are different systems or storages through which information must travel if it is to be remembered. According to one of the most influential and enduring theories, based on cognitive perspective, there are three kinds of memory storehouses. These, vary in terms of their function and the length of time they retain information (Atkinson and Shriffin, 1968. 1971). They formalized a three-stage model of memory which shows that information arriving from the environment is first placed in sensory memory (Massaro and Loftus, 1996), which is the initial, momentary storage of memory. Actually, the term sensory memory denotes several types of sensory memories, each related to a different source of information. There is iconic memory, which reflects the information from our visual system; echoic memory, which stores auditory information coming from the ears and corresponding memories for each of the other senses. However, despite the brief duration of sensory memory, its precision is high. Also, sensory memory can store an almost exact replica of each stimulus to which it is expose (Darwin, Turvey and...
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