Max Karl Ernst Ludwig Planck
Max Karl Ernst Ludwig Planck was a German theoretical physicist who was born on April 23rd, 1858 in Kiel, Holstein. His parents, Johann Julius Wilhelm Planck and Emma Patzig, baptized him with the name of Karl Ernst Ludwig Marx Planck, but some ten years later he was signed with the primary name of Max. During his early childhood, around the age of 6, Prussia and Austrian troops marched into Kiel in the Second Schleswig War in 1864. A short three years later, the Planck family moved to Munich. There he was enrolled at in a gymnasium where he was first introduced to physics by his teacher Hermann Müller. Even at a young age, Planck was gifted when it came to music. As a child he took singing lessons, composed songs and operas, and played the piano, organ and cello.
During his education at Munich University in 1874, he began his scientific career in the study of diffusion of hydrogen through heated platinum. Later he transferred to theoretical physics. One of his Munich professors, Phillipp von Jolly, advised him "in this field, almost everything is already discovered, and all that remains is to fill a few holes.”
Another three years later in 1877, Planck went to Berlin for a year to study with the physicist Hermann von Helmholtz and Gustav Kirchhoff and a mathematician Karl Weierstrass. During this time, Planck observed these men and stated that Helmholtz was unorganized and slow, while Kirchhoff was prepared but monotonous. Planck had also gone to a program of self-study which led him to pick heat theory as his field. In 1878, he passed his qualifying exams and briefly taught mathematics and physics in Munich University. And then in June 1880, he presented his thesis in habilitation, which stated equilibrium states of isotropic bodies differ at different temperatures.
After four years of working with Helmholtz and Kirchhoff, Planck, in 1882, became a full professor at the University of Berlin. During his time in Berlin,...
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