The Concept of Prime Numbers and Zero
MTH/110
March 14, 2011

The Concept of Prime Numbers and Zero
Have you ever wondered about the origins of prime numbers or the numeral zero? The ancient philosophers and mathematicians from such early civilizations in Egypt, Greece, Babylon, and India did. Their efforts have provided the basic fundamentals for mathematics that are used today. Prime Numbers

A prime number is “any integer other than a 0 or + 1 that is not divisible without a remainder by any other integers except + 1 and + the integer itself (Merriam-Webster, 1996). These numbers were first studied in-depth by ancient Greek mathematicians who looked to numbers for their mystical and numerological properties, seeking perfect and amicable numbers. (O’Connor & Robertson, 2009)

In 300 BC, Greek mathematician, Euclid of Alexandria proved and documented in his Book IX of the Elements that prime numbers were infinite. He started with what he believed to be a comprehensive list of prime numbers, created a new number, N, by multiplying all of the prime numbers together and adding 1. This resulted in a number not on his list and not divisible by any of his prime numbers. N therefore had to be either prime itself or be a composite number that was a product of at least two other prime numbers not on his list. In 1747, a mathematician named of Euler demonstrated that all even numbers were perfect numbers. However, one hundred years later in 200 BC, Eratosthenes of Cyrene, a famous Greek mathematician known for his studies regarding prime numbers as well as for measuring the diameter of the earth, devised a procedure or algorithm for calculating prime numbers called the Sieve of Eratosthenes (O’Connor & Robertson, 2009).

The study of prime numbers seemingly ceased to exist during the period of time known as the Dark Ages. Studies on the subject were not noted again until the early 17th century when another prominent mathematician named Fermat,...

...2015
Math Curse By: Jon Scieszka and Lane Smith
Math Curse, written by Jon Scieszka and Lane Smith, takes us on a journey with a small child who is cursed by math. His teacher’s name is Mrs. Fibonacci, who was a well know mathematician who connected a mathematical sequence found in nature. Of course Mrs. Fibonacci told her class and this child how easily math can be seen in the outside world. Our main character goes on amath rampage that drives him crazy. Scieszka and Smith do a great job a combining mathematical concepts as well as rhymes and brain games. The book is continuously rhyming accompanied by humorous art work that gives the story a kind of flow. Want a little bit of a challenge? Try answering a number of math questions asked throughout the book. The math used consisted mainly of patterns if not basic math of a 3rd grader. Fractions were mentioned but as any 3rd grader would be our main character was terrified of them. So much so that he may have considered answering the question in French instead of math.
Overall the book seemed good for the target audience. There was appealing art work on each page, as well as rhymes. The Rhyming scheme made a big difference because it made the story have a sense of flow. Our authors also made the story interesting for an older more sophisticated audience with the introduction of Ms. Fibonacci who...

...Article Review 1
DeGeorge, B., Santoro, A. (2004). “Manipulatives: A Hands-On Approach to Math.” Principal, 84 (2), (28-28).
This article speaks about the importance and significance of the use of manipulatives in the classroom, specifically in the subject of math. Manipulatives have proven to be valuable when used in a math class and are even more valuable to the children when they are young, and are learning new math concepts. Students are able to physically visualize the math concepts and gain knowledge because they understand what they’re learning a whole lot better and they also are able to gain insights on those concepts. Different examples of manipulatives may include counting with beans or M&M’s, using pattern blocks, puzzles, tangrams, and flash cards, just to name a few.
Using manipulatives in a math class are beneficial to both the student and the teacher because the teacher is able to explain the concepts to the students in a much easier manner using the hands-on technique, rather than explaining it verbally. It’s especially beneficial to the student because by incorporating these manipulatives into their learning process, they are able to pick up the concepts much quicker and in a way that they better understand, yet are having fun while doing it. When they have the concepts down, the students’ self-esteem goes up and they feel encouraged to keep on going.
After...

...
ANALYSIS
Physics has a lot of topics to cover. In the previous experiments, we discussed Forces, Kinematics, and Motions. In this experiment, the focus is all about Friction. Friction is the force resisting the relative motion of solid surfaces, fluid layers, and material elements sliding against each other. There are several types of friction like fluid friction which describes the friction between layers of a viscous fluid that are moving relative to each other; dry friction which resists relative lateral motion of two solid surfaces in contact and is subdivided into static friction between non-moving surfaces, and kinetic friction between moving surfaces; lubricated friction which is a case of fluid friction where a fluid separates two solid surfaces; skin friction which is a component of drag, the force resisting the motion of a fluid across the surface of a body; internal friction is the force resisting motion between the elements making up a solid material while it undergoes deformation and sliding friction.
When surfaces in contact move relative to each other, the friction between the two surfaces converts kinetic energy into heat. This property can have dramatic consequences, as illustrated by the use of friction created by rubbing pieces of wood together to start a fire. Kinetic energy is converted to heat whenever motion with friction occurs, for example when a viscous fluid is stirred. Another important consequence of many types of friction can be wear,...

...
The case between Beauty and Stylish involves concept of a valid contract, pre-contractual statements, express term and misrepresentation.
A valid contract is established between Beauty and Stylish when an offer is accepted and there is intention for both parties to create legal relations. An offer refers to the expression of willingness of the offerer to be contractually bound by an agreement if his or her offer is properly accepted. It has to be clear and certain in terms. It must also be communicated to the offeree before it is being accepted. In addition, the acceptance has to be unqualified, unconditional and made by a positive act. In the case of Beauty and Stylish, a positive act refers to the signing of the contract. All terms of the offer must be accepted without any changes and cannot be subjected to any condition, taking effect only upon fulfillment of that condition. When Beauty and Stylish enter into the agreement, they must intend to bind and bound legally to each other by their agreement. This is the intention to create legal relations between two parties. In the meanwhile, this contract must possess consideration. A contract must therefore be a two-sided affair, with each side providing or promising to provide something of value in exchange for what the other is to provide.
Every contract, whether oral or written, contain terms. The terms of a contract set out the rights and duties of the parties. Terms are the promises and undertakings given by each...

...Yr 10
Mathematics
Assignment
LCR Maths
By Adonis Chigeza
Understanding and Fluency Tasks
Task A
1. y = 1.2𝑥 + 2.57
2. Interpolation: y = -3.43
Extrapolation: y = -8.23
Task B
a) The equation for the path of the ball is h = -0.1t^2 + 0.9t + 1 (h = height, t = time)
b) The vertical height of the ball after 2. seconds2.664m
c) The maximum height reached by the ball is 3.025m
d) The time of with the ball is at maximum height of 3.025 is 4.5 seconds
e) The total time in which the ball was in the air is 10 seconds
f) The two times in which the ball was 1 metre above ground is 0 and 9
Adonis Chigeza 10C
LCR Mathematics
Problem Solving and Reasoning Task
1.
Equation: y = -1.2𝒙2 + 8.4𝒙
a. The bridge is 7 metres wides so therefore it will successfully span the river with 2
metres to spare.
b. If a yacht has a 15 metre mask it will be unable to pass safely under the bridge
because the bridge only has a vertical height 14.7 metres.
Adonis Chigeza 10C
LCR Mathematics
2. Equation: v= -0.2h2 + 2.4h
a. The horizontal distance covered by the rocket when it reached its maximum
height of 7.2 metres was 6 metres.
b. The maximum height reached by the rocket was 7.2 metres.
c. At the horizontal distance of 9 metres from the launch site, there is a 5.2 metre
wall and at that vertical distance, the rocket has a vertical distance 5.4 metre.
That is not taking to account the dimensions of the rocket, however the rocket
cannot have...

...• What were the most revolutionary social and economic developments of the last quarter of the nineteenth century?
• How did different groups of Americans respond to those changes and how effective were their responses?
• What role did government play in these developments?
In the late 1900s some of the most social and economic developments were railroads, steel oil, the type writer cash register, light bulb and agriculture. The development of the railroad made it easier for immigrant to come to this country for work. This meant that there were more group of different races and cultures in America. And in some states there became an over population and city workers like police and garbage men could not keep up with the demand of so many people. Some groups mover to open land for the Homestead Act. They had hope of farming and staying on the land for at least five years as agreed but the supply and demand of agriculture did sustain so many farmer moved off the land well before their five years. The government played many different role I deescalating some issues in American history. Women and children were being worked for long hours and getting paid a little bit of nothing in return for their hard work. So the government put labor laws into place that were to protect women and children. As oil, steel and railroad industries grew so did the levels of pollution. The government again put laws that were to protect animals and the earth so that there would not...

...Chapter 11
Four Decades of the Defence of
Australia: Reflections on Australian
Defence Policy over the Past 40 Years
Hugh White
The serious academic study of Australian defence policy can be said to have
begun with the publication of a book by the SDSC’s founder, Tom Millar, in
1965. The dust jacket of that book, Australia’s Defence, posed the following
question: ‘Can Australia Defend Itself?’ Millar thus placed the defence of Australia
at the centre of his (and the SDSC’s) work from the outset. Much of the SDSC’s
effort over the intervening 40 years, and I would venture to say most of what
has been of value in that effort, has been directed toward questions about the
defence of the continent. This has also been the case for most of the work by
Australian defence policymakers over the same period. In this chapter I want
to reflect on that work by exploring how the idea of the ‘defence of Australia’
has evolved over that time, and especially how its role in policy has changed,
from the mid-1960s up to and including the most recent comprehensive statement
of defence policy, Defence 2000: Our Future Defence Force.
This is no dry academic question. The key question for Australian defence
policy today is how we balance priority for the defence of Australia against
priority for the defence of wider strategic interests. The starting point for that
debate is the policies of the 1970s and 1980s, which placed major emphasis on
the defence of the continent....

...Nicolas, Fatima May D.
2014 45876
My Math Experience
When I was younger math was my favorite subject, it was something that I felt very confident
with. Unlike english, history, and literature, where I had to exert extra effort, math was the only
subject that really came naturally to me. I remember when I was a kid my dad would test me on math questions, usually about lines and figures. What kind of line intersects, what are parallel
lines? I was probably about 7 years of age, and it really impressed family friends when the
answer was correct.
In school, I always did well in math especially basic math, it was simple and it was easy.
Back then, I still have the capacity to help out other students and I was always helping out
friends with their assignments. I always got high grades on tests and I was usually done first
when it came to exams. It was really up until I started high school. Then, algebra happened, since
we didn’t have any lessons given regarding algebra (even the most basic ones) during elementary
I didn’t understand a word the teacher was saying, it was like I was reading a different language.
It was hard at first because I for one like solving problems with numbers but when it started
involving letters I knew I had to work harder because it would be different than what we have ...