Sample Size Calculator Terms: Confidence Interval & Confidence Level The confidence interval (also called margin of error) is the plus-or-minus figure usually reported in newspaper or television opinion poll results. For example, if you use a confidence interval of 4 and 47% percent of your sample picks an answer you can be "sure" that if you had asked the question of the entire relevant population between 43% (47-4) and 51% (47+4) would have picked that answer. The confidence level tells you how sure you can be. It is expressed as a percentage and represents how often the true percentage of the population who would pick an answer lies within the confidence interval. The 95% confidence level means you can be 95% certain; the 99% confidence level means you can be 99% certain. Most researchers use the 95% confidence level. When you put the confidence level and the confidence interval together, you can say that you are 95% sure that the true percentage of the population is between 43% and 51%. The wider the confidence interval you are willing to accept, the more certain you can be that the whole population answers would be within that range. For example, if you asked a sample of 1000 people in a city which brand of cola they preferred, and 60% said Brand A, you can be very certain that between 40 and 80% of all the people in the city actually do prefer that brand, but you cannot be so sure that between 59 and 61% of the people in the city prefer the brand. Factors that Affect Confidence Intervals

There are three factors that determine the size of the confidence interval for a given confidence level: * Sample size
* Percentage
* Population size
Sample Size
The larger your sample size, the more sure you can be that their answers truly reflect the population. This indicates that for a given confidence level, the larger your sample size, the smaller your confidence interval. However, the relationship is not linear (i.e., doubling the sample size does...

...include culture, subculture, social class, reference groups, and family.
Culture is the set of beliefs, attitudes, and behaviour patterns shared by members of a society and transmitted from one generation to the next. Cultures do change over time. Marketing managers must be alert this changes so that they can adjust their planning to follow it. For example, in some cases, time has become as valuable as money. Australian consumers increasingly require time - saving services...

...Sampling | Israel, Glenn D
Determining Sample Size1
Glenn D. Israel2
Perhaps the most frequently asked question concerning sampling is, "What sizesample do I need?" The answer to this question is influenced by a number of factors, including the purpose of the study, population size, the risk of selecting a "bad" sample, and the allowable sampling error. Interested readers may obtain a more detailed discussion of the...

...Transportation Survey Sample Calculation
The confidence interval (also called margin of error) is the plus-or-minus figure usually reported in newspaper or television opinion poll results. For example, if you use a confidence interval of 4 and 47% percent of your sample picks an answer you can be "sure" that if you had asked the question of the entire relevant population between 43% (47-4) and 51% (47+4) would have picked that answer.
The confidence level tells...

...Calculating SampleSize
Types of Samples
Subjective or Convenience Sample
- Has some possibility of bias
- Cannot usually say it is representative
- Selection made by ease of collection
Simple Random Sample
- No subjective bias
- Equal chance of selection; e.g., select the fifth chart seen on every third day
- Can usually be backed to say it is representative
Systematic Sample
- Is a random...

...00260 D) 0.0714
Find the minimum samplesize you should use to assure that your estimate of will be within the required margin of error around the population p.
4) Margin of error: 0.002; confidence level: 93%; and unknown
A) 204,757 B) 410 C) 204,750 D) 405
5) Margin of error: 0.07; confidence level: 95%; from a prior study, is estimated by the
decimal equivalent of 92%.
A) 58 B) 174 C) 51 D) 4
Use the given degree of confidence and...

...
Psychographics are the attributes that describe the personality, attitudes, beliefs, values, emotions, style, opinions of customers, and prospective customers. It helps the market to pick up the market targets, and research how markets differ from one another. It does this by distinguishing people’s life style. Magazine ads contain different symbolic messages to reach their audience. People who spend hundreds, thousands, or even millions on ads know who is reading a...

...three strategies can’t be combined especially cost leadership and
differentiation as
‘differentiation is usually costly...
conversely; cost leadership often requiresa firm to forego some differentiation by standardising the product, reducing marketing
overhead, and the like’
(Porter, 2004, p. 18).Within the period of 2009-2012, the one market that Amazon tapped into and turned itself into a global leader was the e-book reader market. The Hybrid strategy used towards this...

...Samplesize
The process of determining the proper samplesize was established through a series of calculations and after obtaining all the possible samplesizes, the largest one was taken into consideration to collect the closest number to a representative sample of the population. The following two equations where used:
Equation 1:
N=z2 *(p.q)
E2
N= sample...