Influences on marketing
C Customer choice (buying behaviour) refers to the decisions and actions of customers when they search for, evaluate, select and purchase goods and services.
Marketers closely examine the behaviour of customers (consumers) to understand what motivates an individual to purchase a particular product — customer choice (buying behaviour). They want to know why the customer selects one product and rejects another. As well, businesses try to inﬂuence customer choice by modifying their marketing strategies to appeal to the customer’s motives. While market research asks questions such as ‘Who are our customers?’, ‘What do they buy?’, ‘When do they buy?’ and ‘How often do they buy?’, customer behaviour asks ‘Why do they buy?’.
FIGURE 6.1 Consumer trends change with changing conditions. For example, concerns about global warming and a world oil price increase inﬂuence car buyers’ behaviour. In the past few years there has been a steady increase in the sale of more economical and environmentally responsible cars such as electric vehicles.
If businesses are aware of the factors that inﬂuence customer choice, they can predict customer trends and how they may react to particular marketing strategies.
Successful marketing begins with understanding why and how customers behave as they do.
6.2 Factors influencing customer choice
Have you ever stopped to consider what inﬂuences your buying decisions? Why do you purchase certain products and not others? Over the years, marketers have suggested numerous theories to explain what it is that persuades individuals to buy products. One of the most common ways is by examining the four main factors which inﬂuence customer choice (see ﬁgure 6.2).
TOPIC 2 • Marketing
FIGURE 6.2 The four main factors inﬂuencing customer choice
Psychological factors are inﬂuences within an individual that affect his or her
buying behaviour. Five main psychological factors inﬂuence customer choice. These are perception, motives, attitudes, personality and self-image, and learning. e r a Even though these psychological factors operate internally, they are also very much affected by sociocultural forces outside the individual.
Psychological factors are inﬂuences within an individual that affect his or her buying behaviour.
What an individual perceives may be very different from reality; people see and hear the same things differently. For example, one person sees a Ferrari motor vehicle as a sign of achievement; another BizWORD sees it as ostentatious. This is the result Perception is the process through g u c o r p e h t s i of perception. Perception is the process which people select, organise and through which people select, organise and interpret information to create interpret information to create meaning. meaning. Usually there is a range of perceptions across different individuals. As individuals we often act on our perceptions of reality rather than reality itself. Consequently, marketing managers are extremely aware that they must create a positive or favourable perception about their product in the mind of the customer. Customers will not normally purchase a product that they perceive as inferior. The FIGURE 6.3 One image — two perception customers have of a product is perceptions. People often hold quite often the result of some type of advertising different views about the same thing, that attempted to create a certain ‘image’ whether it is a product, a person, a movie or an experience they share of the product — images such as trendy, because they perceive it differently. luxurious, classy, fun and rebellious. In Although businesses cannot control reality, the product may not necessarily people’s perception, they do try to have such qualities. It...