A variety of environmental forces influence a company’s marketing system. Some of them are controllable while some others are uncontrollable. It is the responsibility of the marketing manager to change the company’s policies along with the changing environment.
According to Philip Kotler, “A company’s marketing environment consists of the internal factors & forces, which affect the company’s ability to develop & maintain successful transactions & relationships with the company’s target customers”.
The Environmental Factors may be classified as:
1. Internal Factor
2. External Factor
External Factors may be further classified into:
External Micro Factors & External Macro Factors
Company’s Internal Environmental Factors:
A Company’s marketing system is influenced by its capabilities regarding production, financial & other factors. Hence, the marketing management/manager must take into consideration these departments before finalizing marketing decisions. The Research & Development Department, the Personnel Department, the Accounting Department also have an impact on the Marketing Department. It is the responsibility of a manager to company-ordinate all department by setting up unified objectives.
External Micro Factors:
1. Suppliers: They are the people who provide necessary resources needed to produce goods & services. Policies of the suppliers have a significant influence over the marketing manager’s decisions because, it is laborers, etc. A company must build cordial & long-term relationship with suppliers. 2. Marketing Intermediaries: They are the people who assist the flow of products from the producers to the consumers; they include wholesalers, retailers, agents, etc. These people create place & time utility. A company must select an effective chain of middlemen, so as to make the goods reach the market in time. The middlemen give necessary information to the manufacturers about the market. If a company does not satisfy the middlemen, they neglect its products & may push the competitor’s product. 3. Consumers: The main aim of production is to meet the demands of the consumers. Hence, the consumers are the center point of all marketing activities. If they are not taken into consideration, before taking the decisions, the company is bound to fail in achieving its objectives. A company’s marketing strategy is influenced by its target consumer. Eg: If a manufacturer wants to sell to the wholesaler, he may directly sell to them, if he wants to sell to another manufacturer, he may sell through his agent or if he wants to sell to ultimate consumer he may sell through wholesalers or retailers. Hence each type of consumer has a unique feature, which influences a company’s marketing decision. 4. Competitors: A prudent marketing manager has to be in constant touch regarding the information relating to the competitor’s strategies. He has to identify his competitor’s strategies, build his plans to overtake them in the market to attract competitor’s consumers towards his products.
Any company faces three types of competition:
a) Brand Competition: It is a competition between various companies producing similar products. Eg: The competition between BPL & Videcon companies. b) The Product Form Competition: It is a competition between companies manufacturing products, which are substitutes to each other Eg: Competition between coffee & Tea. c) The Desire Competition: It is the competition with all other companies to attract consumers towards the company. Eg: The competition between the manufacturers of TV sets & all other companies manufacturing various products like automobiles, washing machines, etc. Hence, to understand the competitive situation, a company must understand the nature of market & the nature of customers. Nature of the market may be as follows: I....