Managers have to perform many roles in an organization and how they handle various situations will depend on their style of management. A management style is an overall method of leadership used by a manager. Various management styles can be employed dependent on the culture of the business, the nature of the task, the nature of the workforce and the personality and skills of the leaders. This idea was further developed by Robert Tannenbaum and Warren H. Schmidt who argued that the style of leadership is dependent upon the prevailing circumstance; therefore leaders should exercise a range of leadership styles and should deploy them as appropriate. •
An Autocratic or authoritarian manager makes all the decisions, keeping the information and decision making among the senior management. Objectives and tasks are set and the workforce is expected to do exactly as required. The communication involved with this method is mainly downward, from the leader to the subordinate. The main advantage of this style is that the direction of the business will remain constant, and the decisions will all be similar, this in turn can project an image of a confident, well managed business. On the other hand, subordinates may become dependent upon the leaders and supervision may be needed. The autocratic leader dominates team members and makes decisions on their own without seeking or allowing input from group members. Autocrats set timelines, tasks and then asks for suggestions / objections. They are quick to both praise and punish. This results in passive resistance from team members and requires continual pressure in order to get things done. Some instances call for urgent action and the autocratic style may be best. Most people are familiar with autocratic leadership and accept it. Disadvantages
More group hostility
More dependence on leader
More apathy in group
Slower execution of decisions
More group productivity while leader watches
Group makes quicker decisions
Often does the task themselves as it is quicker
Pushes the group.
The authoritative leader traits are: seldom let others make decisions, feels that he/she is the most qualified and experienced, considers his/her views to be most valid, lacks confidence in others abilities, critical of differing opinions, rarely gives recognition, is easily offended, uses others for his/her benefit, action oriented, highly competitive. The biggest weakness of this style is the failure to recognize the skills and abilities within other people. They are often denied opportunities to use or exhibit their skills in decision-making venues. Yet, the greatest strength of this style is to produce action when it is needed •
A more Paternalistic form is also essentially dictatorial, however the decisions tend to be in the best interests of the employees rather than the business. The leader explains most decisions to the employees and ensures that their social and leisure needs are always met. This can help balance out the lack of worker motivation caused by an autocratic management style. Feedback is again generally downward; however feedback to the management will occur in order for the employees to be kept happy. This style can be highly advantageous, and can engender loyalty from the employees, leading to a lower labour turnover, thanks to the emphasis on social needs. It shares similar disadvantages to an authoritarian style; employees becoming dependent on the leader, and if the wrong decisions are made, then all employees may become dissatisfied with the leader. The leader or manager using this style operates like a dictator. He or she makes all the decisions about what, where, when, why, how things are done, and who will do them. Employees failing to following directions are usually severely disciplined or given cause for “early retirement” (as recently happened to a friend of mine). The dictatorial leader traits...
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