Q.1 Explain controlling and also discuss different types of control 
Controlling as a Management Function
A process of monitoring performance and taking action to ensure desired results. •
It sees to it that the right things happen, in the right ways, and at the right time. •
Done well, it ensures that the overall directions of individuals and groups are consistent with short and long range plans. •
It helps ensure that objectives and accomplishments are consistent with one another throughout an organization. •
It helps maintain compliance with essential organizational rules and policies. Types of Control
Allows motivated individuals to exercise self-control in fulfilling job expectations. •
The potential for self-control is enhanced when capable people have clear performance objectives and proper resource support. 2.External Controls
It occurs through personal supervision and the use of formal administrative systems. •
Performance appraisal systems, compensation and benefit systems, employee discipline systems, and management-by-objectives.
Sometimes called the feedforward controls, they are accomplished before a work activity begins. •
They make sure that proper directions are set and that the right resources are available to accomplish them. 4.Concurrent
Focus on what happens during the work process. Sometimes called steering controls, they monitor ongoing operations and activities to make sure that things are being done correctly. 5.Postaction
Sometimes called feedback controls, they take place after an action is completed. They focus on end results, as opposed to inputs and activities.
Q.2 Veer Prabhakar is the Vice President of web bazaar, online portal for shopping of various products. He has team of 100 people at different levels and departments. He is facing certain challenges.
To maintain motivation levels of sales associated who are doing good sales
How to deal with the supply chain associates who are not following up properly for order delivery. (Currently, they are getting Cell Phone allowance for consistence follow-up after office hours)
To deal with the people who keep taking leaves without prior information.
Suggest suitable methods to shape employee behavior.
Organizational Behavior emphasizes on intellectual capital as represented by the sum total of knowledge, expertise, and dedication of an organization?s workforce. It recognizes that even in the age of high technology, people are the indispensable human resources whose knowledge and performance advance the organizations purpose, mission, and strategies. Only through human efforts can the great advantages be realized from other material resources of organizations, such as, technology, information, raw materials, and money. •
Mr Prabhakar needs to do Individual level of analysis.
This level of analysis at individual level is more related to the study of aspects like learning, perception, creativity, motivation, personality, turnover, task performance, cooperative behavior, deviant behavior, ethics, and cognition. •
Remuneration of personnel: this may be achieved by various methods but it should be fair, encourage effort, and not lead to overpayment. •
Individuals will be motivated to exhibit the modeled behavior if positive incentives or rewards are provided. •
Finally, in order for observational learning to be successful, you have to be motivated to imitate the behavior that has been modeled. •
Reinforcement and punishment play an important role in motivation. While experiencing these motivators can be highly effective, •
For example, if we see another student rewarded with extra credit for being to class on time, we might start to show up a few minutes early each day. Through Individual level of analysis Mr. Prabhakar can shape employee behavior.
Q.3 Write a detailed note on...
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