The kidneys are dark red bean -shaped organs that are a very important pair of organs that perform many functions. The kidneys have a convex side and a concave side. They are each about the size of a fist. The kidneys are located near the middle back of a human, just below the rib cage, one on each side of the spine. One kidney is located below the spleen on the left side of the body, whereas the other kidney is located just below the liver. The kidneys receive blood from the paired renal arteries and the blood is drained into the paired renal veins. In a human body, the kidneys process about 200 quarts of blood to sift out about 2 quarts of waste products and extra water everyday. Kidneys also produce various hormones. The function as two main functions- excretion and osmoregulation. Excretion is the process by which waste products and other non- useful materials are eliminated from an organism. Osmoregulation is active regulation of the osmotic pressure to maintain the homeostasis of the organism’s water content. In other word, it keeps the organism’s fluid from becoming too diluted or too concentrated. Each of the kidneys is confined in a transparent membrane called the renal capsule. This protects the kidney again infections and distress. The substance of the kidney is divided into two distinct regions: an inner medulla and an outer cortex. The renal medulla is made up of conical masses of tissue called renal pyramid. The bases of the renal pyramids are directed towards the convex surface of the kidney. The renal cortex forms a shell around the medulla. The tissues dip into the medulla between the adjacent renal pyramids to form renal columns. The granular appearance of the cortex is due to the random arrangement of tiny tubules associated with nephrons, the functional units of the kidney. Nephrons are the most basic structure of the kidneys, it is a long, fine tubule around 30-55mm long and each kidney contains about one million of these structures. Nephrons are responsible for filtering the blood and removing the waste products. Research Question:
From observations made in this experiment, what can be observed from the structure of the mammalian macroscopically and microscopically kidney is adapted to perform its function of excretion and osmoregulation?
To investigate the macroscopic appearance the structure of the mammalian kidney in respect to its function of excretion and osmoregulation. Part B:
To investigate the macroscopic appearance the structure of the mammalian kidney in respect to its function of excretion and osmoregulation. Hypothesis:
The structure of the mammalian’s kidney is expected to have a certain structure adapted to perform its functions of excretion and osmoregulation. Apparatus:
•1x sheep’s Kidney
•1x Dissecting board
•Disposable rubber gloves & apron
•Prepared slides of the kidney
•1x Binocular microscope
1.Put on the apron and disposable gloves.
2.Wrap the dissecting board with the newspaper first then the paper towel on top of the newspaper. 3.Place the sheep’s kidney on the dissecting board.
4.Examine the outside shape of the sheep’s kidney and then draw the shape of the kidney. 5.Measure the dimensions of the kidney with a ruler and add them to the diagram of the shape of the kidney. (Note any other structures attached to the kidneys and include these in the diagram.) 6.After examining the exterior of the sheep’s kidney, use the scapel and cut the kidney in two longitudinally. 7.Study the different layers in the kidney and draw a sketch of the longitudinal section of the kidney with identifying all parts with labels. Part B:
1.Set up the binocular microscope.
2.Obtain the prepared slide of the kidney and put it under the microscope. 3.Starting from the low power, examine...