Making a Living

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MAKING A LIVING

Anthropology: Chapter 16
Cultural Anthropology: Chapter 8

Physical Anthropology and Archaeology: Not Present

CHAPTER OBJECTIVES

1.Know what an adaptive strategy is. In addition you should know how Cohen uses adaptive strategies to classify different societies.

2.Understand what foraging entails and what social and cultural traits are commonly found in foraging societies.

3.Understand what horticulture entails and what social and cultural traits are commonly found in horticultural societies.

4.Know what agriculture entails and what social and cultural traits are commonly found in agricultural societies. In particular, you must be familiar with the features of agriculture that distinguish it from horticulture.

5.Know what pastoralism entails and what social and cultural traits are commonly found in pastoral societies.

6.Distinguish between modes and means of production.

7.Understand how industrialism leads to the alienation of the producer and the product.

8.You need to know how economic anthropologists study the ways in which groups manage their resources. Specifically, you need to know how economic anthropologists use maximizing and economizing models to study the different uses that various societies have for scarce resources.

9.You should know the different forms of distribution and exchange. In particular, you should be able to distinguish between the market principle, redistribution, and the various forms of reciprocity.

10.You need to be familiar with the potlatch. Specifically, you need to know what it is, where it is found, how it has changed through time, and how it functions at both the local and regional levels.

CHAPTER OUTLINE

I. Adaptive Strategies

A. Yehudi Cohen used the term adaptive strategy to describe a group’s system of economic production.

B. Cohen has developed a typology of cultures using this distinction, referring to a relationship between economies and social features, arguing that the most important reason for similarities between unrelated cultures is their possession of a similar adaptive strategy. II. Foraging

A. Human groups with foraging economies are not ecologically dominant.

B. The primary reason for the continuing survival of foraging economies is the inapplicability of their environmental settings to food production.

C. Beyond the Classroom: Integrating Archaeological, Ethnographic, and Analytical Subsistence Data: A Case Study from Patagonia, South America. 1. Jennifer A. Kelly used various sources to reconstruct the subsistence strategies of the aboriginal inhabitants of Patagonia. 2. Her isotope analysis on a fragment of human bone from the region suggests that the diet of the inhabitants of Patagonia was more varied than the ethnohistoric accounts suggest.

D. Correlates of Foraging
1. Band organization is typical of foraging societies, because its flexibility allows for seasonal adjustments. 2. Members of foraging societies typically are socially mobile, having the ability to affiliate with more than one group during their lifetimes (e.g., through fictive kinship). 3. The typical foraging society gender-based division of labor has women gathering and men hunting and fishing, with gathering contributing more to the group diet. 4. All foraging societies distinguish among their members according to age and gender, but are relatively egalitarian (making only minor distinctions in status) compared to other societal types.

III. Cultivation

A. Horticulture
1. Horticulture is nonintensive plant cultivation, based on the use of simple tools and cyclical, noncontinuous use crop lands. 2. Slash-and-burn cultivation and shifting cultivation are alternative labels for horticulture.

B. Agriculture
1. Agriculture is cultivation involving continuous use of crop land and is...
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