Nursing Theorist Madeliene Leininger: Culture Care Theory
Madeliene Leininger was born in Sutton, Nebraska in 1925. In her early life she lived with her brothers and sisters on her father’s farm. She received her high school education from Scholastica College. She furthered her education at the Catholic University of America in Washington, D.C. and then went to the University of Washington, Seattle. Upon completion of her education she became the first professional nurse to complete a PhD on anthropology.
Due to the broader approach in her education, she became the first to bring knowledge of anthropology and nursing together to develop the concept of transcultural nursing as an area of study necessary in the nursing field. She developed the Culture Care Diversity and Universality Theory with special focus at culture care. To date, due to the uniqueness of her perspective this theory is used across the world. She developed the theory in 1978 when she established the first caring research conference in which she established the ethnonursing method of research. Leininger conducted the first transcultural study in the field of research in the 1960s while she lived in the Gadsup villages of the Eastern Highlands of New Guinea.
After publishing her first book in the field of transcultural nursing, she established the first graduate program. In the study, Leininger focused at enhancing emic, generic and etic professional care through establishing their similarities and differences to prevent possible gaps and conflicting areas which are non therapeutic to clients. While her prowess in the field of nursing developed, she established the Transcultural Nursing Society as the organization that officially governed the new discipline. This was established in 1974. Afterwards, she established the first journal of transcultural nursing and became the editor. Due to her progressive performance in the discipline of transcultural nursing she has received many honors and outstanding awards. Her significant worldwide breakthrough in encouraging advancement of health discipline has lead to her nomination for a Nobel Prize.
Based on the theory of Culture Care Diversity and Universality, Leininger tries to describe and predict similarities in nursing and inherent differences which are focused at human care and cultures. The theory pays no attention to medical symptom, diseases and treatment but focuses on the methods of approach to care that gives significance to the person to whom the care is given. The theory was developed in the 1950s and 1960s to give care to people with cultural differences in lifestyles and values. Training nurses in this field enables them to offer care suitable to the people being administered. Due to focus on client nurse interaction the approach places the client at a better position of receiving better care and attention than when the medical approach to care is adopted. The focus is wide enough to serve not only different needs of individual but also communities, groups, families and institutions (Andrews & Boyle, 2007).
Her first model in Culture Care Theory is called the Sunrise Enabler which offers the conceptual framework and guides a systematic study to the varied dimensions of the theory. This model is distinct in that it identifies three activities which include identification of the goals of nursing by addressing client oriented practices; assessing cultural factors affecting the care to the client and making appropriate judgment about the situation; making decision about the measures to be taken and taking action as influenced by the cultural context. The model uses information attained through research that identifies areas of congruence between cultures and nursing care especially in cultural values, lifestyles and beliefs of the client.
In Culture Care Theory, Leininger identifies client caring as the heart of...