Week 6 Term Paper for Professor Inglis
My topic for this term paper will be lung cancer. This topic was chosen because I have pass family who've lost their lives to lung cancer. I believe the best way to start is by defining the disease. We will then take a glance at statistics and risk factors for lung cancer. Next will look at lung cancer symptoms, staging and treatment, and finally I will draw my final conclusion. I. What is Lung Cancer?
A simple and understandable definition of lung cancer is: A disease which consists of uncontrolled cell growth in lung tissues. Lung cancer consists of two types: Non-small cell lung cancer, and small cell lung cancer. "(NSCLC) is the most common type of lung cancer." (Zieve & Yi-Bin, 2010) The bronchi (The large air tubes leading from the trachea to the lungs that convey air to and from the lungs.) is where most lung cancers begins. The body normally maintains cell growth only producing new cells when needed. Disruption of normal cell growth results in an uncontrolled division and proliferation of cells eventually forming a tumor. Tumors can be benign or malignant, but when we speak of cancer (including lung cancer), the tumors are malignant. Lung cancer metastasizes very early after it forms making it a very life-threatening cancer, difficult to treat. A. Lung Cancer Statistics
Make no mistake; lung cancer is the most deadly form of cancer death. I decided for statistics I would research information on lung cancer deaths in the United States. According to the CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) the last reported year for lung cancer deaths is 2007. Let’s look at the statistics. In the US alone, "109,643 men and 93,893 women were told they had lung cancer, and 88,329 men and 70,354 women died from it." (U.S. Cancer Statistics Working Group, 2010) Now let’s take a look at the statistics by gender and race. For men, "black men were diagnosed with lung cancer most often, followed by white, American Indian/Alaska Native, Asian/Pacific Islander, and Hispanic men." (U.S. Cancer Statistics Working Group, 2010), The order for women was that white women were diagnosed with the most new cases, "followed by black, American Indian/Alaska Native, Asian/Pacific Islander, and Hispanic women." (U.S. Cancer Statistics Working Group, 2010) Percentage wise 82.7 percent of men, and 55.0 percent of women were diagnosed with lung cancer. B. The Risk Factors
There are some things we can do to control the risk of getting lung cancer. Smoking is one of the highest risks factors to developing lung cancer. "Quitting at any age can significantly lower your risk of developing lung cancer." (Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research, 2011) Other risk factors to developing lung cancer are things around us at home or work, such as radon (colorless gas that comes from rocks and dirt and can get trapped in houses and buildings) gas or asbestos, second hand smoke, and having a family history of lung cancer. One more thing before we move on. High alcohol abuse can increase the risk of developing lung cancer. II. Lung Cancer Symptoms
A. Symptoms of lung cancer
Research shows one-fourth of people show no symptoms, some even when diagnosed with lung cancer, but the majority of people diagnosed do show symptoms. The key to a better survival rate depends on catching lung cancer early. This is why it's very important to know the symptoms. Some of the early signs of lung cancer are: Cough that doesn’t go away, shortness of breath with activity, pain or aching in your shoulder, back, chest, or arm, and repeated infections such as bronchitis and pneumonia. Men usually develop squamous cell carcinoma of the lungs often showing early symptoms such as: Chronic cough, Coughing up blood, Wheezing, Shortness of breath, and Hoarseness. For women and non-smokers, adenocarcinoma (Adenocarcinoma of the lung is a form of non-small cell lung cancer....