The term "lower urinary tract symptoms," or LUTS, is nonspecific. It has been used as a general term to refer to any combination of urinary symptoms or as a more specific term to refer to those symptoms primarily associated with overactive bladder (frequency, urgency, and nocturia). An international consensus conference identified LUTS to include symptoms relating to storage and/or voiding disturbances common among aging men . The prevalence of lower urinary tract symptoms in men increases with age. LUTS often has a significant negative impact on a patient's quality of life. A survey of over 5000 community-dwelling men age ≥65 in the US without history of prostate cancer found that 46 percent reported moderate to severe symptoms of LUTS . Another community-based study found that the prevalence of LUTS increases steadily with age into the 10th decade, affecting 70 percent of men older than 80 years . Men with LUTS may report one or any combination of the following symptoms: * Urinary frequency
* Urgency, with or without incontinence
* Hesitancy in initiating the stream
* Weak stream
* Sense of incomplete bladder emptying
* Post void or terminal dribbling
Although urinary frequency and urgency suggest an overactive bladder, none of these symptoms are specific or diagnostic for a specific etiology for LUTS. Saini, R. and McVary, K.T. (2012, May 4) Lower urinary tract symptoms in men. Retrieved from http://www.uptodate.com/contents/lower-urinary-tract-symptoms-in-men It cannot be overstated that the current treatment for AKI is mainly supportive in nature; no therapeutic modalities to date have shown efficacy in treating the condition. Therapeutic agents (eg, dopamine, nesiritide, fenoldopam, mannitol) are not indicated in the management of AKI and may be harmful for the patient. Maintenance of volume homeostasis and correction of biochemical abnormalities remain the primary goals of treatment and may...