Logic

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  • Topic: Logic, Syllogism, Inference
  • Pages : 9 (2390 words )
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  • Published : February 10, 2013
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Reasoning

What is reasoning ?
It is also a kind of thinking but different from it, in the sense there is checking and re - checking of the conclusion arrived at based on certain facts so reasoning is defined as '' a process of arriving at a new judgement on the basis of one or more judgement,'' Reasoning is the mental activity used in and argument, proof, or demonstration, reasoning is generally associated with rules and methods and formal laws of logic but many people reason and argue without being consciously aware of it. For example when a dog comes back after seeing the master enter his car, when we expect a letter from a friend or turn to the gate on hearing a noise. We are thinking and reasoning without realizing it. Reasoning is a way of solving a problem or meeting a new situation, perception imagination and memory are closely related to reasoning for the help is assessing the situation and find out alternate solution of the problem.  Inference is the act or process of deriving logical conclusions from premises known or assumed to be true.[1] The conclusion drawn is also called an idiomatic. The laws of valid inference are studied in the field of logic. Human inference (i.e. how humans draw conclusions) is traditionally studied within the field of cognitive psychology; artificial intelligence researchers develop automated inference systems to emulate human inference. Statistical inference allows for inference from quantitative data. 10 Major Types of Inference in Literature

on the page (word clues) + in your head (think!) =
Authors don't tell you everything. You have to figure some things out when you read based on the clues the author gives you. When the author gives you clues, that's called an implication. When the author makes an implication, you must make an inference about the author's implied message. Different types of inference readers make include: 1. Inferences about The Location:

Words on the Page: Clues in the Text: Inference:
“While we roared down
the tracks, we could feel
the bounce and sway.”
Moving fast down
tracks, swaying...
They must be on a train.
2. Inferences about The Agent (Occupation or Pastime):
Words on the Page: Clues in the Text: Inference:
“With clippers in one hand
and scissors in the other,
Chris was ready to begin
the job.”
3. Inferences about Time:
Words on the Page: Clues in the Text: Inference:
“When the porch light
burned out, the darkness
was total.”
4. Inferences about Action (What's going on?):
Words on the Page: Clues in the Text: Inference:
“Carol dribbled down the
court and then passed the
ball to Ann.”5. Inferences about Instrument (Tool or Device): Words on the Page: Clues in the Text: Inference:
“With a steady hand, she
put the buzzing device on
the tooth.”
6. Inferences about Cause & Effect:
Words on the Page: Clues in the Text: Inference:
“In the morning, we
discovered that the trees
were uprooted and homes
were missing their
rooftops.”
7. Inferences about An Object (What is it?):
Words on the Page: Clues in the Text: Inference:
“The broad wings were
swept back in a ‘v’, and
each held two powerful
engines.”
8. Inferences about A Category:
Words on the Page: Clues in the Text: Inference:
“The Saab and Volvo were
in the garage, and the Audi
was out front.”
9. Inferences about A Problem or Solution:
Words on the Page: Clues in the Text: Inference:
“The side of his face was
swollen, and he winced
when he tried to chew the
mashed potatoes.”
10. Inferences about Feelings or Character Traits:
Words on the Page: Clues in the Text: Inference:
“While I marched past in
the junior high band, my
dad cheered and his eyes
filled with tears.”

Quality and quantity
Propositions are further distinguished into affirmative and negative; which has been called a distinction with respect to quality. In affirmative propositions, the predicate and subject are asserted to agree. In negative propositions, the...
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