...ďťżWrite about the 2 theories of 1st languageÂ acquisition and choose which mostÂ tenableandÂ provide examples and relevant literature one you find
In this essay, I will explain as well as compare two theories ofÂ first languageÂ acquisition, behaviorism and innatism. Â I will explore the differences between them in such categories as the role of the learner, the role of the environment and as well as theirÂ strengths and weaknesses. I will then state and explain which one I find more tenable with examples of relevant literature.
Role of the Learner
Behaviorism, credited to B.F. Skinner in the 1950s, states that the learner knows nothing to start with, he is an empty slateÂ [o1]Â to be taught. The learner is passive and learns by positive-negative reinforcement, only repeating what he hears.
Innatism, credited toÂ Noam ChomskyÂ in 1965, states that the learner is wired from birth for language. The learner is equipped with a LAD, aÂ language acquisition device. This device allows the learner to discover the rules of his language, any language.
Role of the Environment
Behaviorism states that the role of the environment is key and vital to theÂ learning process. The environment is the active agent while the learner is the passive agent. The environment produces the necessary language input for the learner. It is up to the environment to give positive and negative reinforcement...
...Linguistic Variation in Morocco
Moroccoâs geographical location as a bridge between Europe and Africa, and as a home for Arab, Amazigh, Andalusian, African and Jewish cultures, make of the country a place of considerable linguistic diversity. In this article, this diversity will be approached from a personal perspective, inspiringly as a result of reading Chapter 7 âLanguage in Societyâ in âIntroduction to Languageâ.
Geographically speaking, spoken all over Morocco, there are tens of dialects descendents of Arabic and Amazigh languages. The Arabic dialects range from the Hassani dialect spoken in the Southern Saharian Regions, through the different colloquial Arabic dialects of regions like Marrakesh and Fez, to the Arabic spoken in the Northern Regions close to Spain. Similarly, Amazigh language gives rise to many dialects and sub dialects, specifically Tashelhit in the Souss Region, Tamazight in the High Atlas and Tarifit in the North. These regional dialects do not have definite boundaries (isoglosses) among them, but certainly overlap to form a dialect continuum. Moroccans speakers of all this disparity of dialects seem to reach a minimum of mutual intelligibility. In cases where they fail to, they resort to the modern Moroccan Colloquial Arabic (Dareeja) as their lingua franca.
Importantly these regional dialects exhibit linguistic differences on...
Course Title: Introduction to Linguistics and Communication Theories
Professor: Dr. Merlita Q. Santos
Discussant: Herbert M. Tabios
The Breakthrough of Linguistics Science (1820-1960)
a. 1820 to 1875
Grimm's lawÂ (also known as theÂ First GermanicÂ Sound ShiftÂ or theÂ Rask's-Grimm's rule), named forÂ Jacob Grimm, is a set of statements describing the inheritedÂ Proto-Indo-EuropeanÂ (PIE) stops as they developed inÂ Proto-GermanicÂ (PGmc, the common ancestor of the Germanic branch of the Indo-European family) in theÂ 1st millennium BC. It establishes a set of regular correspondences between earlyÂ GermanicÂ stopsÂ andÂ fricativesÂ and the stop consonants of certain otherÂ centumÂ Indo-European languagesÂ (Grimm used mostlyÂ LatinÂ andÂ GreekÂ for illustration). As it is presently formulated, Grimm's Law consists of three parts, which must be thought of as three consecutive phases in the sense of aÂ chain shift:
1. Proto-Indo-European voicelessÂ stopsÂ change into voicelessÂ fricatives.
2. Proto-Indo-European voiced stops become voiceless stops.
3. Proto-Indo-European voiced aspirated stops become voiced fricatives; ultimately, in most Germanic languages these voiced fricatives become voiced stops.
The chain shift can be abstractly represented as:
bĘ°Â âÂ bÂ âÂ pÂ âÂ É¸
dĘ°Â âÂ dÂ âÂ tÂ âÂ Î¸
Verner's law, stated byÂ Karl VernerÂ in 1875, describes a historicalÂ sound...
...The Benefits and Downsides of Intermingling Languages
While bilingualism has always been an object of interest and thorough research for scientists of various fields, mixing languages had been, until the last few decades, cast aside as its defective by-product. However, recent linguistic studies show that intermingling languages should not be considered an ill-conceived overlapping tendency that implies carelessness and a improper use of language, but a linguistic phenomenon with its own intricate rules and purposes. The addition of objectivity towards this subject has enabled linguists to describe in length the downsides and benefits of intermingling languages.
None of the pros and cons can be treated with absolute certainty as language mixing itself is often subject to different interpretations. The term âintermingling languagesâ is sometimes replaced with âcode switchingâ or âcode mixingâ, and the latter two treated as synonyms, although their meaning differs in multiple aspects. Code switching implies that the alternation between languages takes place after longer periods of time. Since code-switch mostly occurs at a clause or sentence boundary, it is referred to as intersential switching. According to the Sridhar brothers (1980) code mixing comprises of changing languages after shorter utterances...
...relation to other branches of linguistics. Then, define yours. One of your reference should be âfundamentals of Pyscholinguistics by Fernandez and Cairns (2010)â
Ă Psycholinguistics is an interdisciplinary field of study in which the goals are to understand how people acquire language, how people use language to speak and understand one another, and how language is represented and processed in the brain. Psycholinguistics is primarily a sub-discipline of psychology and linguistics, but it is also related to developmental psychology, cognitive psychology, neurolinguistics, and speech science (Fernandez: 2011).
Ă Psycholinguistics examines the psychology of language; psycholinguistics is the name given to the study of the psychological processes involved in language. Psycholinguists study understanding, producing, and remembering language, and hence are concerned with listening, reading, speaking, writing, and memory for language. (Harley, Trevor A. 2001. The Psychology of Language.)
Ă "Psycholinguistic studies have revealed that many of the concepts employed in the analysis of sound structure, word structure, and sentence structure also play a role in language processing. However, an account of language processing also requires that we understand how these...
...usage refers to a variety of a language that is a characteristic of a particular group of the language's speakers. The term is applied most often to regional speech patterns, but a dialect may also be defined by other factors, such as social class. A dialect that is associated with a particular social class can be termed a sociolect, a dialect that is associated with a particular ethnic group can be termed as ethnolect, and a regional dialect may be termed a regiolect or topolect. The other usage refers to a language that is socially subordinate to a regional or national standard language, often historically cognate to the standard, but not a variety of it or in any other sense derived from it.
Dialect: This is a complex and often misunderstood concept. For linguists, a dialect is the collection of attributes (phonetic, phonological, syntactic, morphological, and semantic) that make one group of speakers noticeably different from another group of speakers of the same language.
COMMON SOURCES OF MISUNDERSTANDING:
1) DIALECT is NOT a negative term for linguists. . Often times, for example, we hear people refer to non-standard varieties of English as "dialects", usually to say something bad about the non-standard variety (and thus about the people who speak it). This happened quite a bit during last year's ebonics controversy. But, the term dialect refers to ANY variety of a language. Thus, by...
Properties of Language According to LinguisticsLanguage, we use it everyday, but what exactly defines âlanguage?â Are there generalizations to be made of all languages? Does everyone learn language same way? What are the rules of language? âWhat is Language?â by Neil Smith and Deirdre Wilson answers these questions and more by highlighting the three major theories of modern linguistics.
The first modern linguistic theory claims that language is govern by grammar and that grammar is a set of rules with two functions: identifying possible sentences in a given language and dictate the pronunciation & meaning of a sentence in a given language. The first function provides fluent speakers the ability to understand every conceivable sentence in their language even if they never heard it before sentences. This creative quality to produce infinitely many sentences is unique to language. The second function provides fluent speakers of different dialects to communicate with each other using the grammar rules of their shared language. The two functions of the first modern linguistic theory provides effective communication between two parties and acknowledgment of it is vital in first...
âAPPLIED LINGUISTIC AND LANGUAGE LEARNINGâ
Submitted as Final Assignment
ENGLISH EDUCATION SECTION
STATE UNIVERSITY OF PADANG
Today, linguistics is developed rapidly. Another aspect related to the fields of language study is also growing. Studies on language not only covers one aspect only, but has extended to areas or aspects outside the language associated with the use of language and human life. Linguistic theory is a branch of applied linguistics that focuses on the general theory and methods common in language research. Branches of linguistics can be divided into phonology, morphology, syntax, and semantics. Therefore, applied linguistics can be applied in any field. One is education related to language learning.
According to Bloom & Lahey (Owen, 1992:14), language is very complex systems that can be well understood with elaborate an element or component functions. Language can be divided into three principal, though not equally important components: patterns, content, and usability.
When people use language, it encodes the ideas (semantics), ie, it uses a symbol of sounds, words, and so represent an actual...